Neurosurgery Cases and Reviews is an international, peer reviewed, open access journal that deals with the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders affecting portions of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.
All the published articles are permanently archived without any restriction barriers to access under terms of creative commons attribution license. The submitted manuscripts undergo thorough double blind peer review process and are accepted only by recommendation of editorial experts. The journal invites various type of articles covering but not limited to ablative surgery, astroglias, brain hemorrhages, cervical spinal stenosis, cranial/peripheral nerve pain, deep brain stimulation surgery, drug-resistant epilepsy, glioblastomas, hydrocephalus infections, intracerebral hemorrhage, intractable psychiatric disorders, invasive stereotactic neurosurgery, lumbar spinal stenosis, movement disorders, moyamoya disease, skull fractures, spinal cord trauma, spinal disc herniation, traumatic injuries of peripheral nerves, tumors of the spine, spinal cord and peripheral nerves, vascular malformations, etc.
Articles Search by Keyword | Journal title | Author name | DOI
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710038
Ismail Latifaci, MD, Selcuk Gozcu, MD and Ahmet Celal Iplikcioglu
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 19, 2020
Syringomyelia associated with atlantoaxial dislocation is usually described in patients with complex craniovertebral junction anomaly. However, atlantoaxial dislocation without craniovertebral junction bony anomaly very rarely causes syringomyelia. In this report, we describe a case of syringomyelia associated with atlantoaxial dislocation secondary to metastatic tumour of the axis vertebra. Syringomyelia is characterized by the presence of a fluid filled cystic cavity within the spinal cord. Ce...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710036
Selçuk Gözcü and Ahmet Celal İplikçioğlu
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 18, 2020
Ossified cephalhematoma is rare and usually occur in newborns due to birth injury. Some ossified cephalhematomas can resorb spontaneously while others require surgery because of cosmetic reasons. Simple excision of new bone is usually sufficient. It should be also differentiated from another clinical entity called intradiploic hematoma which requiers surgery. In reported cases, of infant intradiploic hematoma cases clinical and radiologicial findings are similar to those of ossified cephalhemato...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710037
Nimetullah Alper Durmus, Iddi Kassım Mkopi and Ali Kurtsoy
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 19, 2020
Pituitary apoplexy followed by cerebral ischaemia is very rare and life-threatening clinical syndrome. Ischemia is a rare complication after pituitary apoplexy. Cerebral ischemia due to pituitary apoplexy has been linked to two mechanisms; this can occur through one of two mechanisms- direct compression of the artery or vasospasm caused by vasoactive factors/agents released from haemorrhagic or necrotic material of the pituitary adenoma....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710034
Nasiru Jinjiri Ismail, Ali Lasseini, Aliyu Muhammad Koko and Bello B Shehu
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 16, 2020
Fibrous dysplasia is an aberration in normal bone development that results from a defect in osteoblastic differentiation and maturation originating in a mesenchymal precursor; it’s characterized by foci of abnormal fibro-osseous proliferation that can affect any area of the calvaria. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia is a rare condition that can presents with craniofacial swelling and disfigurement. Usually, cranial computerised tomography scan is needed for radiological evaluation and excision a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710035
Baliga V, Ganapathy S and Pandey P
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 16, 2020
There are quite a few entities which can present as dura- based masses. Most common being meningioma, others are gliosarcomas, solitary fibrous tumor, leiomyosarcoma, haemangiopericytomas and melanocytomas. Recently, a number of neoplastic and non-neoplastic entities have been reported that radiographically and clinically mimic meningiomas. This is a rare case of glioblastoma with rhabdoid features presented as dura-based tumor. Even though the imaging helps to narrow down the diagnostic possibi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710033
Shunsuke Yanagisawa, Yuya Sakakura, Shota Ozaki, Ryuichi Noda, Yuta Tamai, Makiko Fujitani, Masato Inoue and Tetsuo Hara
Article Type: Case Series and Literature Review | First Published: May 01, 2020
Primary CNS lymphoma is rare primary brain tumor. Meanwhile there are given number of acquired immune deficiency syndrome related primary CNS lymphoma. This brain tumor was reported that it showed ring enhancement in contrast MRI or CT. Here we analysed six acquired immune deficiency syndrome related primary CNS lymphoma cases. All cases showed ring enhancement in contrast MRI. The central low uptake and peripheral high uptake were observed in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET, and these imaging featur...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710032
Joel Caballero-García, Carlos Aparicio-García, Misael López-Sánchez and Jhohana Linares Benavides
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 18, 2020
A 58-year-old woman with a previous history of partial resection for a parietal glioblastoma in another center and trapped temporal horn is presented. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt was done with completely resolution of the temporal lobe entrapment. Trapped temporal horn is a rare condition, and many different surgical approaches have been described. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting remains the standard treatment and has some particularly advantages in patients with malignant tumors. The ideal treat...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710031
Katherine M Morgan, MD, PhD, Simon Hanft, MD and Zhenggang Xiong, MD, PhD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 08, 2020
Angiolipomas are slow-growing, soft tissue tumors consisting of mature adipocytes and thin-walled blood vessels. While most Angiolipomas are subcutaneous lesions in the trunk and upper extremities, intraosseous angiolipomas are rare at cranial site. We present the case of a 61-year-old female with an enlarging lesion in the left frontoparietal skull following minor head trauma. Radiography confirmed an expansile, enhancing, spiculated bony lesion in the left frontoparietal calvarium with extensi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710030
Ismail Kaya, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 24, 2020
Paraspinal schwannomas are relatively common but hardly classified subject of spinal neurosurgery. We present a rare and unclassified case of paravertebral schwannoma that causes non-discogenic low back pain. A 45-year-old Caucasian female came to our clinic with low back pain. Her pain steadily worsened for two years. Her physical exam showed right straight leg raise positivity at 45-degree angle but provocation test negative. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass in the paravertebral muscle...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710029
AA Sufianov, SM Karasev, RR Khafizov and RA Sufianov
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 04, 2019
Carotid - cavernous fistulas (CCF) are spontaneous or acquired communications between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the cavernous sinus, which can be classified as direct or indirect. Direct fistulas between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus can occur due to trauma, ruptures of intracavernous carotid artery aneurysms, collagen deficiency syndromes, stratification of arteries, fibromuscular dysplasia, and direct surgical trauma. Symptoms caused by CCF are associated with...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710028
Maria Habib Hanna, MD, Bansal A, MD and Belani P, MD
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 24, 2019
Ependymomas are glial tumors that typically arise from the lining of the ventricles or the central canal of the spinal cord. The most common site of occurrence is within the posterior fossa. Subtypes of ependymomas include anaplastic ependymoma, myxopapillary ependymoma, and subependymoma. Its characteristic imaging features include findings of a heterogeneous mass with necrosis, calcifications, cystic changes, and hemorrhage. Treatment options includes partial resection with or without irradiat...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710027
AA Sufianov, SM Karasev, RR Khafizov and RA Sufianov
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 21, 2019
Arteriovenous abnormalities of cerebral vessels are quite common. One of the main manifestations of this pathology are arteriovenous malformations. Also, a combination of malformations with aneurysmal expansion of the vascular wall of various localization is not rare. The frequent localization of such aneurysms are afferents going to the malformation site; therefore, such aneurysms are also called proximal flow-related aneurysms. As a rule, a combined approach is used mainly for endovascular tre...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710026
Elia Guadagno, MD, Lorenzo Ugga, MD, Annarita Gencarelli, MD, Valentina Orlando, MD, Sergio Corvino, MD, Maria Rosaria Cervasio, MD, Sara Pignatiello, MD, Andrea Elefante, MD, Francesco Maiuri, MD and Maria Laura Del Basso De Caro, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 18, 2019
Liponeurocytoma is a very rare tumor of the nervous system, with only 63 reported cases, mainly in the cerebellum and ventricular system. The key-points for the diagnosis are the histological findings of neurocytic cells with lipidic accumulation, with positivity for S-100 and synaptophysin and negativity for IDH-1, and the MR finding of hyperintensity areas on T1Wi corresponding to fatty tissue within the tumor. This article reports a case of cerebellar liponeurocytoma presenting with acute ict...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710025
Munibe Busra Erdem, MD, Emrah Celtikci, MD, Utku Aydil, MD, Mesut Emre Yaman, MD and Hakan Emmez, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 07, 2019
Pharyngeal perforation is a serious complication of anterior cervical fusion surgery. If it is not diagnosed in the early period and the treatment is delayed, catastrophic consequences may occur which may cause death such as septicemia, mediastinitis, pneumonia and meningitis. We shared the presentation of our two cases. In the first case, pharyngeal perforation and spontaneous extrusion of the C2-C3 fixation device occurred after eight years from surgery. The fixation device removed and the pha...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710024
Ibiwari Pepple and Debasish Hajra
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 05, 2019
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for 10-20% of all lung cancers and is characterised by early and rapid spread. Ten percent of patients already have cerebral metastases at time of presentation. We report a case of a 37-yr-old female whose pre-operative CT and MRI brain revealed multicentric left frontal and temporal lesions which mimicked intracerebral abscess intraoperatively and confirmed on gram stain as moderate growth of white cells. The patient was commenced on prolonged antimicrobia...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710023
Nissar Shaikh, Gulzar Hussain, Adnan Khan, Muhammad Mohsin Khan, Mamdouh Al Mustafa, Moad Ehfeda, Muhammad Zubair and Umais Momin
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 13, 2019
A 38-year-old Asian male had craniotomy with excision of a left frontal mass which extended into the lateral ventricles. External ventricular and subdural drains were inserted at the end of the procedure. He received mannitol and furosemide intraoperatively. Immediately after surgery he developed tension pneumocephalus, diabetes insipidus and fever. Two days after surgery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed transverse, sagittal sinus thrombosis extending into the right internal jugular vein...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710022
Hu Liang Low and Ahsan Taqvi
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 05, 2019
Post-traumatic conus medullaris syndromes (CMS) such as after L1-burst fractures are uncommon, being encountered in only 1.7% of patients with spinal cord injuries. These injuries are almost invariably associated with bladder, erectile or bowel dysfunction, disturbance of perineal sensation and varying sensorimotor deficits in the legs. To date, there are only 6 reported cases of CMS after a L1-burst fracture without sensory or motor deficits in the lower limbs. In this case report, we describe ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710021
Andrea Bianco, Riccardo Fornaro, Christian Cossandi, Sara Forgnone, Emanuela Crobeddu and Piergiorgio Car and Gabriele Panzarasa
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: July 05, 2019
Pregnancy can change the behavior of brain gliomas with increased growth rate, increased frequency of seizures, and anaplastic transformation. Very rarely the presentation may be hyperacute due to intratumoral hemorrhage. We report and discuss them a management of the hemorrhagic infarction of a newly diagnosed postcentral anaplastic astrocytoma in a pregnant woman. A first MRI discovered the glioma; two days later, after acute neurological deterioration, a second MRI showed a dramatic increase ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710020
Uri P Hadelsberg, MD and Nevo Margalit, MD
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: June 29, 2019
This patient was admitted to our department and eventually underwent surgery with gross total resection after pre-operative endovascular embolization of the tumor. The patient underwent a successful recovery and was discharged without major neurological deficits to rehab. On follow up the patient is doing well and is back home with her children. On the day of surgery the patient was intubated and underwent cerebral embolization with occlusion of several tumor-feeding arteries. The patient was th...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710019
Matías Negrotto, MD, Ramon Figueroa, MD and Katherine Sotomayor, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 26, 2019
Although gunshot injury to the head is usually mortal, survivors frequently show retained metal shrapnel or full bullet intracranially. An important though uncommon complication of retained bullet is that of spontaneous migration. A migrating intracranial bullet is a dilemma to neurosurgeons, as its management is challenging, since the removal of a deep-seated bullet may cause additional neurological deficit. Migration of a retained bullet may cause damage to vital structures and cranial nerves,...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710018
Umang Khandpur, BS, Wilson Z Ray, MD and Matthew R MacEwan, PhD
Article Type: Case Series | First Published: June 17, 2019
A retrospective case series was performed to evaluate the efficacy of a novel, fully synthetic dura substitute. Clinical outcomes (e.g. infectious, reoperation rates, cerebrospinal fluid leak) and surgeon experiences with the dura substitute intraoperatively were collected. All methods were approved by the Institutional Review Board at Washington University School of Medicine....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710017
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 17, 2019
A summary of available data on neurosurgical mission trips has been collected from PubMed and Google Scholar on the following mesh keywords: Neurosurgery trips, mission neurosurgery, and neurosurgery in third world countries. We gathered our information that was closely related to neurosurgical education such as proficiency, equipment, ethics and outcomes....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710016
Siavash S Haghighi
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 08, 2019
A case report of psychogenic hemiplegia following a two level anterior cervical discectomies and fusion was contradicted by a thorough electrophysiological findings. To report an unusual case of post-operative hemiplegia in spite of normal electrophysiological and noncompromising radiographic findings. Conversion disorder with sensory or motor system symptoms is a subtype which includes symptoms such as impaired motor balance, paraplegia, muscle weakness, and urinary retention....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710015
Siavash S Haghighi, MD, Bertha Ramirez, MD and Richard Zhang, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 08, 2019
Acute or delayed paraplegia or quadriplegia following anterior cervical discectomies and fusion are not common. We report this single case report of delayed quadriplegia following an anterior cervical discectomies and fusion without any change of sensory or motor evoked potentials during the operation. The intraoperative somatosensory (SSEPs) were performed by stimulation of tibial nerves or the median (MN). Motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs) were recorded from intrinsic hand or foot muscles after...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2643-4474/1710014
Thierry Patrice, MD, PhD, Romain Bourcier, MD, Hubert Desal, MD, PhD, Bertrand Rozec, MD, PhD and Yvonnick Blanloeil, MD
Article Type: Case Study | First Published: April 26, 2019
Oxidative stress (OS) could be involved during intracranial aneurysms (ICA) progression but knowledge about comorbidities likely to induce OS is poor. We studied the medical and surgical history of patients with an ICA discovered after a subarachnoidal haemorrhage (SAH) or unruptured (UIA). 175 patients, 58 with a UIA, had been successively recruited from a single centre. Their medical history, comorbidities and treatments had been gathered from hospital files, general practitioners, relatives a...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/NCR-2017/1710013
Wyatt McGilvery, BS, Marc Eastin, MD, Anish Sen, MD and Maciej Witkos, MS, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 05, 2019
The authors report a case in which a 38-year-old male who presented himself to the emergency department with a chief complaint of cervical neck pain and paresthesia radiating from the right pectoral region down his distal right arm following self manipulation of the patient's own cervical vertebrae. Initial emergency department imaging via cervical X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without contrast revealed no cervical fractures; however, there was evidence of an acute cervical disc her...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/NCR-2017/1710012
Giuseppe Mariniello, MD, Carmela Peca, MD, Maria Laura Del Basso De Caro, MD, Sergio Corvino, MD, Valentina Orlando, MD, Elia Guadagno, MD and Francesco Maiuri, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 14, 2019
This article reports a left cerebellopontine angle glioblastoma presenting with two week history of rapidly progressive hearing loss and trigeminal pain, treated by subtotal resection and radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. At one year, local tumor control and diffuse neoplastic seeding in the cervical spinal cord were evidenced. Glioblastomas involving the cerebellopontine angle are exceptional with only 10 reported cases. The possibility of a glioblastoma should be conside...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ncr-2017/1710011
Pouya Entezami, MD, Emad Nourollahzadeh, MD, Adedamola Adepoju, MD, David Michael Jones, MD and John Dalfino, MD
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 11, 2019
As our patient population grows older with improved health care technology and resources, chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is an increasingly common disease faced by the modern neurosurgeon. Despite good results with burr-hole irrigation and evacuation - the gold standard treatment for CSDH - recurrence rate remains high. Recent advancements in endovascular management of this diagnosis via embolization of the middle meningeal artery (MMA), either alone or in conjunction with surgical evacuation,...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ncr-2017/1710010
Pouya Entezami, M Reid Gooch, Emad Nourollahzadeh and John Dalfino
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 21, 2019
The basilar artery is the main arterial contributor to the posterior circulation. Interruptions of this flow can cause devastating strokes and neurological demise. While most patients with a basilar artery occlusion suffer from a high rate or morbidity and/or mortality, a small subset survive but have progressive symptomatic decline. Delayed revascularization of these patients with chronic basilar artery occlusions based on symptomatic progression may provide a favorable risk-benefit ratio, but ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ncr-2017/1710009
Alexandra Benouaich-Amiel, Shlomit Yust-Katz, Suzana Fichman and Tali Siegal
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 20, 2018
Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a rare, Epstein barr virus (EBV) associated, angiocentric B cell proliferation, which usually involves the lung but may also involve, more rarely, the central nervous system. Its malignant potential is uncertain, and seems to be linked to the number of EBV positive B cells. We report the case of a 32-years-old patient, with an antecedent of LYG grade 2, involving lung, who presented with a brain mass lesion one year later, which appears to be a grade 1 LYG wi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ncr-2017/1710008
Alice Venier, Luca Roccatagliata, Alessandro Cianfoni and Emanuele Pravata
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 15, 2018
Glioblastoma scalp dissemination is uncommon. Infiltration may occur through the craniotomy, suggesting diffusion from the surgical site as the most likely mechanism. At Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), features of the metastatic tissue resemble those of the primary tumor. We show multimodal MRI appearance of a glioblastoma disseminating to the scalp. The patient presented with a stiff, non-tender palpable mass within the extracranial soft tissues, five months after surgery. Distinctive finding...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ncr-2017/1710007
A Giorgianni, P Veiceschi, G Agresta, S Balbi and D Locatelli
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 19, 2018
We report a case of right internal carotid artery pseudo-aneurysm, arising in the aspects of a giant macroadenoma in a 57-years-old man, presented with right severe temporal orbital headache and vomiting. Computed tomography scan (CT) revealed a destructive skull base mass extended from sellar region to clivus. Pre and post-gadolinium brain magnetic resonance (MRI) confirmed the lesion, characterized by an encasement of optic nerves and carotid siphons bilaterally, with a pseudo-aneurysm of cave...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ncr-2017/1710006
Adriana Rodrigues Liborio dos Santos, Gabriel Mufarrej, Priscila Oliveira da Conceicao, Paulo Luiz da Costa Cruz, Daniel Dutra Cavalcanti, Leila Chimelli and Paulo Niemeyer Filho
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 19, 2018
Selective Amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) is a widespread technique for Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (MTLE) treatment. Dr. Niemeyer was the first to describe SAH using transventricular approach technique in 1958. In 2018, we celebrate 60 years of the original description of Niemeyer's approach. This study reviews the approach in light of currently technology and shows the results achieved with patients submitted to SAH following Niemeyer's approach at Instituto Estadual do Cérebro Paulo Niemeyer...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ncr-2017/1710005
Manuel Dujovny, Channan Kositzke, Pablo Sosa and Fabian Cremaschi
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 10, 2018
Suction capability in neurosurgery is a critical tool utilized to clear the field and improve visualization of anatomical structures. It is also used for fragmentation and debulking of pathological tumor masses. Prior to the Frazier cannula, there was no orifice bent pressure relief valve associated with suction; this tool provides independent dual suction force. The Frazier cannula has the capability to reach absolute suction or zero suction instantaneously. In this article, we introduce a new ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ncr-2017/1710004
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 05, 2018
Acute peritentorial subdural hematoma (APSDH) is an extremely rare intracranial bleeding, which generally occurs due to a trauma. And, It usually regresses spontaneously without the need for a surgical intervention. However, it is difficult to determine the surgical method when it is life-threatening. A 15-year-old boy was brought to the hospital after a crash with a car whilst on a motorcycle. No significant intracranial bleeding was detected following an isolated severe head trauma; however, G...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ncr-2017/1710003
Francesco Restelli, Gianluca Agresta, Tommaso Alfiero, Alessandro Dario and Davide Locatelli
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 31, 2018
As physicians and neurosurgeons, our daily practice in Emergency Departments sometimes calls us to manage patients and to take decisions in sub-optimal conditions, maybe with partial anamnesis, incomplete neurological examinations or with lacks in routine radiological and laboratory exams. Such eventuality, although it may sometimes lead to misdiagnose and to confound some pathological conditions, fortunately is not always linked to bad repercussions for patients. This is especially true when de...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ncr-2017/1710002
Giyas Ayberk, Selen Isık Adiloglu, Aylin Kılıc Yazgan, Mahmut Ferhat and Mehmet Faik Ozveren
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 15, 2018
A giant cell granuloma (GCG) rarely occurs in the skull bones. Although it has destructive character, the GCG is used as the synonym of giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) in the literature. Differentiation from other osteolytic lesions quite difficult. The first case of GCG in the temporal bone was reported by Hirschl and Katz in 1974. Even though the GCG is not a true neoplasm, the locally aggressive behavior of this tumor necessitates surgical excision whenever possible....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/ncr-2017/1710001
Renu Pokharna, Miles W Reese, Souvik Sen and Tushar Trivedi
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 11, 2018
Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare non-Hodgkin type neoplasm, which crosses the midline. We report an unusual case of a 71-year-old Caucasian female who was shown to have PCNSL by a tissue biopsy after the brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed Central Nervous System (CNS) lesions crossing the corpus callosum....
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