International Journal of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine is an open access, peer reviewed journal publishing articles on emergency medicine and the intensive care. The Journal provides a platform for authors to contribute their findings and help raise awareness among readers in various aspects of emergency medicine. The journal aims to publish highest quality clinical content via open access platform providing the readers free, immediate and unlimited access.
International Journal of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine is an open journal which accelerates research updates in various aspects such as Acute Injury, Basic Investigations, Cardiology, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Chest Pain Emergency, Clinical Controversies, Critical Care, Disaster Management, Emergency, Emergency Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques, Emergency Medicine, First Aid, Healthy Policy and Ethics, Immediate Response to Trauma, Injury and Disease Prevention, Intensive Care, Observational Cohort Studies, Out-of-Hospital Emergency Medical Service, Pharmacology, Pre-Hospital Care, Radiology, Rescue Squad, Sports Medicine, Sudden Illness, Toxicology, Traumatology, Visual Diagnosis in Emergency Medicine, Wound Care Techniques, etc. Original Article, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Short Communications, Case Reports, Clinical Image, Perspectives/Opinions, Letters, Short Note and Commentaries are accepted for publication. All articles published in the journal are subject to a rigorous peer review process. It encourages authors to publish their work in detail.
Articles Search by Keyword | Journal title | Author name | DOI
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510043
Xuelu Zhou and Shangjun Zhou
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 29, 2018
In 113 publications 984 cases (including our eight cases) were retrieved. An annual incidence in China has been estimated between 0.002/million and 0.2/million male populations. The commonest causes were coitus and masturbation. Clinical features were the classical triad of "cracking" sound, immediate detumescence and pain. Swelling, ecchymosis and deformity were present in the majority of patients. Diagnosis was made mainly on clinical grounds; ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510042
Srihari Cattamanchi, Lucas C Carlson, Felicity Gonzalez and Anbrasi Edward
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 16, 2018
Extensive evidence from high-income countries has demonstrated the value of quality improvement (QI) methods yet reports of their use in LMICs are markedly limited. We aim to explore how QI can be implemented in the setting of an LMIC to remove barriers to timely antibiotic therapy for severe sepsis....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510041
Sevtap Gursoy, Kadriye Kart Yasar, N Didem Sari, Nuray Kuvat and Savas Ozturk
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 11, 2018
Sphingomonas paucimobilis is an aerobic, non-fermentative gram-negative motile bacterium that may be an unusual infectious agent for immunocompromised host. Intravascular instrumentations are commonly applied in the hemodialysis patients. These procedures have an increased risk for infection with unusual, rare and opportunistic pathogens....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510040
Mikio Shiozawa, Alan Kawarai Lefor, Naohiro Sata, Yoshikazu Yasuda and Hideo Nagai
Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: August 06, 2018
In June 2000, the Miyakejima volcano suddenly erupted, forcing evacuation of all inhabitants. We undertook this study to evaluate the effects on the health of inhabitants after their returning to the island 4 years after the eruption. We examined 269 inhabitants, who visited the Miyakejima Central Clinic, and specifically discussed symptoms related to exposure and anxiety related to the disaster....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510039
Chihiro Nakano, Toru Yamagishi, Norio Kodaka, Kayo Watanabe, Kumiko Kishimoto, Takeshi Oshio, Kumiko Niitsuma, Nagashige Shimada and Hiroto Matsuse
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 30, 2018
Most cases of pneumothorax comprise primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP), which usually occurs in young, tall men and results from rupture of subpleural blebs or bullae. Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP), on the other hand, is associated with an underlying lung disease, such as emphysema or asthma; acute or chronic infections; lung cancer; and congenital disease, including cystic fibrosis, catamenial pneumothorax, and lymphangioleiomyoma...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510038
Daniel Sermoneta, Francesco Favi, Carlo Salvadori, Marco Coniglio and Francesco Saverio Mari
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 30, 2018
Foreign body ingestion is a very common reason for access to the Emergency Department and in most cases, it doesn't cause symptoms; in case of fishbones, intestinal perforation is rare but possible. In this report, besides the typical picture of bowel perforation, we found atypical symptoms due to the specific location. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510037
Shahla Siddiqui and Robin Choo
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 14, 2018
Over the last decade an increasing number of elderly patients are being admitted to the Intensive care units across the World. With a rapidly ageing population Asian countries face a tremendous burden of care for these patients. Family expectations have also increased with more demanding aggressive life support even in the older patients. Patients are generally getting less frail as they age and with the improvement in technology and advancements in medical science the outcomes of these patients...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510036
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 21, 2018
The acute management of broad complex tachycardias in the Emergency Department (ED) can often pose a significant challenge, not just for the more inexperienced of doctors. This is often due to the potentially lethal nature of this arrhythmia, the perceived complexity of ECG interpretation or handling of antiarrhythmic drugs. Whilst most doctors are aware that broad complex tachycardias are in the vast majority of cases related to structural abnor...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510035
Jaspreet Singh, Shankar K Thampi, Amit Alam, Rajiv Jauhar, Apoor Patel, and Avneet Singh
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 15, 2018
Specific criteria have been developed for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in patients with right ventricular pacing, but not for patients with bi-ventricular pacing. We present a case of a patient with a biventricular implantable cardioverter defibrillator (BiVICD), who presented with symptoms consistent with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), new ST elevations of the inferior leads, and was found to have acute occlusion of right coronar...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510034
Bree Kramer and Christopher Heard
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 14, 2018
Noise exposure is an important factor in the management of intensive care patients. There are many different causes of noise in the ICU such as equipment, monitors, staff, family plus other additional sources. Patients in the ICU are exposed to these noise sources for 24 hours a day with no respite. The noise levels can vary significantly during the day as well as significantly between patient bed-spaces. There are detrimental effects from excess...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510033
Teresa A Hand and Debkumar Chowdhury
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 06, 2018
Carbon monoxide poisoning can present in subtle ways with a variable range of symptoms from mild headaches to profound neurological impairment. The primary aim of this article is to highlight the importance of early detection of carbon monoxide poisoning through meticulous clinical assessment. The secondary aim of this article is to review the current treatment strategies. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510032
Jean-Michel Liet, Alexis Chenouard, Sebastien Faraj, Armelle Garenne and Pierre Bourgoin
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 06, 2018
Managing mechanical ventilation in patients with bronchopleural fistula (BPF) can be hazardous, especially in case of large air leaks and underlying parenchymal lung disease. The fistulous tract offers low airflow resistance, and air escapes through the BPF to the detriment of the tidal volume, jeopardizing the minute ventilation and oxygenation. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510031
Jose Luis Vazquez Martinez, Aida Lopez de Pedro, Ana Coca Perez, Raul Montero Yeboles and Cesar Perez-Caballero Macarron
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 31, 2018
Bilateral diaphragmatic paresis following cardiac surgery is rare. We present a case in which several extubation attempts failed in an infant after cardiac surgery. Point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) showed a slight but symmetric decrease of diaphragmatic motion, confirmed by fluoroscopy. Phrenic electromyography (EMG) was informed inconsistently as normal. After eight weeks of non-invasive ventilation the patient was weaned to room air, revea...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510030
Haruka Kuno, Harumi Gomi, Kazutaka Fukushima, Yukiko Kodama, Taijiro Shirokawa, Kousei Miura, Shijima Taguchi, Norio Takayashiki and Takao Kanai
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 24, 2017
Gas gangrene is a rare, life-threatening deep skin infection typically related to contaminated wounds, although it may occur without injury. Non-traumatic gas gangrene due to Clostridium spp. is most commonly caused by Clostridium septicum....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510029
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 22, 2017
As initial therapy for cerebral sinus thrombosis, heparin injection and subsequent oral anticoagulant, namely warfarin, has been recommended. We treated a patient with cerebral sinus thrombosis with edoxaban alone as an outpatient. This is the first report of cerebral sinus thrombosis being treated with edoxaban alone....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510028
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: October 26, 2017
Agenesis of the bilateral internal carotid arteries is a rare disease. There have been few case reports of subjects who developed cerebral infarction, intracranial hemorrhage or subarachnoid hemorrhage. We experienced a rare case of agenesis of the bilateral internal carotid arteries in which the patient developed vertigo....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510027
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 17, 2017
Allergic asthma and rhinitis, Atopic Dermatitis (AD), urticaria and gastrointestinal allergy, are common diseases of infants and children. It was recently estimated that 14% of children suffer from AD, 8% from food allergy, and 12% from asthma. The cumulated incidence of these diseases in adolescents has been estimated between 25-35%, while the prevalence is about 20%....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510026
Saiprasad Narsingam, Benjamin S Abella, Anne V Grossestreuer and Paul S Chan
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 15, 2017
Targeted temperature management (TTM) improves outcomes in patients with Out-of-Hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) due to Shockable rhythms. The frequency with which TTM is used for Non-Shockable cardiac arrest rhythms and for In-Hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) is unknown....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510025
Jennifer Li, Simon Turner, Gordon Finlayson, Basil Nasir, John Yee and Anna McGuire
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 12, 2017
Although rare, spontaneous esophageal perforation or "Boerhaave syndrome", carries a high case fatality rate. The 'classic' presentation of chest pain, vomiting and subcutaneous emphysema is actually uncommon clinically, with the literature reporting variable initial presentations....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510024
Manuel Pinero Zapata, Miriam Martinez Villanueva, Francisco V Aviles Plaza, Cesar Cinesi Gomez, Aurelio Luna Maldonado and Maria E Legaz Moreno
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 11, 2017
The mid-regional fragment of the peptide complex Pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is a ubiquitous biomarker tissue distribution in the human body with increased levels in the course of certain diseases of great importance for vital engagement and whose clinical course is often associated with dyspnoea....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510023
Antonio Giovanni Solimando, Antonella Argentiero, Anna Ruckdeschel, MaxBittrich, Andreas Schneider, Rodolfo Sbrojavacca, Angelo Vacca, Georg Fritz and Hermann Einsele
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 25, 2017
Acute heart failure (AHF) represents a heterogeneous clinical syndrome, comprising new or worsening signs and symptoms on a background of stable chronic heart failure (HF), as well as new-onset HF. In either clinical picture, urgent care is crucial. Given the variety of clinical scenario, stratifying patient subgroups on a pathophysiologic base can help direct appropriate therapy. ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510022
Beatriz Oyanguren, Araceli Alonso-Canovas, Alicia de Felipe and Jaime Masjuan
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 18, 2017
Five patients with CAE were admitted to our Emergency Department (A-E). All experienced loss of consciousness (LOC). Chest radiograph showed thoracic bullae. Brain computed tomography (CT) showed subarachnoid bubbles (A), intraparenchymal bubbles (B), global hypoperfusion (C), or no abnormalities (D, E). With supportive treatment, four survived, while B died. Including ours, 18 cases of CAE during commercial flights have been reported. LOC and dy...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510021
Ephraim B Winzer and Axel Linke
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 25, 2017
In patients with stable coronary artery disease percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) effectively improves symptoms in the absence of any effect on prognosis. In contrast, in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) PCI significantly reduces the risk of acute myocardial infarction and death as compared to conservative, noninvasive strategy....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510020
Ramiro Galvez-Valdovinos, Ernesto Marin Y Santillan and Gustavo Lopez-Ambriz
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 12, 2016
A 39-year-old man with abdominal pain, fever and general poor state. Physical examination showed fever, Tachycardia, Left basal hypoventilation and acute surgical abdomen. A Abdominal X-Ray showed accumulation of calcifications in mesogastric. The laboratory test showed leukocytosis and the abdominal CT-Scan showed the cause of the acute surgical abdomen. The laparoscopic surgery was recommended and performed....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510019
Mirko Zanatta, Piero Benato and Vito Cianci
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 20, 2016
The mission of pre-hospital medical service is to provide rapid and high quality life support. The development of specific protocols, the availability of new diagnostic tools have determined a significant improvement of pre-hospital care. The use of ultrasound in the pre-hospital medical service is a new and reliable diagnostic device....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510018
Arlene Muzira Nakanwagi, Stephen C Kijjambu, Peter Ongom and Tonny Stone Luggya
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 04, 2016
Intestinal Obstruction is the impairment of normal flow of intestinal contents from mouth to anal canal with aetiology that varies depending on various factors. Understanding aetiology of a country's surgical services has proven to aid better planning for its emergency surgical conditions. Mulago, which is Uganda's National Referral Hospital, is resource constrained with a surgical burden of 33% due to acute abdomen with Intestinal Obstruction. T...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510017
Martin D Rosenthal, Cameron Rosenthal, Jayshil Patel, Janeen Jordan, Kristina Go and Frederick A Moore
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 04, 2016
Arginine is a conditional amino acid that has a wide breadth of metabolic activity and applications when supplemented. During critical illness, high stressed states, and increased metabolic demand arginine becomes an essential amino acid. It is during this time that supplementation benefits the host. Arginine supplementation during sepsis, however, has remained controversial as there is theoretical harm stemming from arginine serving as a substra...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510016
Jean A Klastersky
Article Type: Commentary | First Published: July 03, 2016
Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in patients with cancer were comprehensively discussed recently by Bennett et al. While similar appraisals are available in the literature, evaluation of the problem on a national basis is useful for practicing physicians as it take into consideration local aspects relating to microbiological epidemiology and general medical practice that can modulate international guidelines....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510015
Rose Allen and Eve Butler
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 03, 2016
Background: Moral distress can affect critical care nurses caring for complex patients. It can result in job dissatisfaction, loss of capacity for caring, and nurse turnover, resulting in a negative impact on quality care. Aim: This study purpose was to determine how moral distress impacts critical care nurses (adult and pediatric) and to implement improvement strategies to reduce moral distress, improve job satisfaction, and retention. Theoretic...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510014
Jonathan W Kamrud, Lori L Boland, Carol L Frazee, Tyler G Kinzy, Paul A Satterlee and Charles J Lick
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 02, 2016
Mechanical compression devices purportedly improve the quality of chest compressions by minimizing interruptions and maintaining optimal rate and depth, but this claim has not been objectively substantiated using transthoracic impedance (TTI) recordings from applied setting cardiac arrests. In this study, we use TTI data to compare chest compression quality metrics from the manual versus mechanical compression phases of out-of-hospital cardiac ar...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510013
Nissar Shaikh, Tasneem Mehesry, Gulzar Hussain, Arshad Chanda, Ali Belkhair, Syed Sheikh, Faisal Malmstrom and Marcus AE
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 08, 2016
Extubation failure increases morbidity and mortality in intensive care. Laryngeal edema which developed post extubation is one of the major risk factor for extubation failure. Post extubation laryngeal edema occurs in up to 37% of the extubations. Steroids are commonly used pre extubation to prevent development of laryngeal edema. Aim of this study was to find whether steroids can prevent post extubation laryngeal edema and types of patients who ...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510012
Satoshi Kazuma, Yoshiki Masuda, Hiroomi Tatsumi, Kanako Takahashi, Shinichiro Yoshida, Maiko Honma, Hitoshi Imaizumi and Michiaki Yamakage
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 26, 2016
A 54-year-old female weighing 62 kg had hemoptysis with an unidentified focus 4 months before and had been followed in the Department of Respiratory Medicine. Angiographic embolization was performed for a right bronchial artery ramification suspected of being the bleeding focus by bronchofiberscopy, but there were few effects. Right middle lobectomy was performed to control the persistent hemoptysis, and tracheal extubation was performed on the s...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510011
Andrea M Pakula, Jannet Gannon, Lisa Mundy, Kathleen Berns, Anita Stoltenberg and Beth A Ballinger
Article Type: Literature Review | First Published: January 30, 2016
The decision to transport a critically ill patient is based on the need for diagnostic or therapeutic procedures that are not available within the intensive care unit. Most commonly this type of transport is within the home facility and is for procedures such as imaging or for operative intervention. Theoretically, intra-hospital transfers are safer than the transfers to another institution, as transfers outside of the home facility tend to requi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510010
Yiheng Wang, Lixian He, Xiaoling Hu, Zhigang Zhou, Hong Zhou
Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 30, 2016
The authors report an inadvertent late migration of right jugular catheter and the unexpected complications. Postoperative computed tomography reveals bilateral pleural effusion and pneumomediastinum. We speculate that the migration during the maintenance or multiple attempts of placing a guidewire damaged the wall of right brachiocephalic vein or superior vena cava, and punctured through right pleura and anterior mediastinal leading into the com...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510009
Gonzalo Hernandez, Concepcion Vaquero Collado, Susana Garcia Plaza, Ana Villasclaras Pacheco, Candido Pardo Rey, Eugenia de la Fuente O'Connor, Rafael Cuena, Paloma Gonzalez Arenas, Rafael Fernandez
Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2015
Oxygen delivery after extubation is the cornerstone treatment to maintain adequate oxygenation and avoid reintubation. Oxygen is usually delivered through low-flow nasal prongs; when necessary, flow is increased or patients are switched to a high-flow face mask. Some other interventions after extubation focus on specific causes of reintubation; for example, high risk patients are administered prophylactic corticosteroids before planned extubation...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510008
Relationship Between Isolating Multi-Drug Resistant A. Baumannii and K. Pneumoniae in Bronchial Aspirate and Subsequently in Blood Cultures: Evaluation of Colistin Aerosol Therapy in Intensive Care Patients
Distasi Maria Antonietta, Del Gaudio Tito, Malcangi Annarita and Pirronti Angela
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 30, 2015
Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) are multiresistant pathogens most frequently found in patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care of our hospital. We found the highest rate of positivity in the bronchial aspirates, often followed by a similar observation in blood culture. We carried out a study to evaluate the reduction of sepsis that developed after the detection of these microorganisms in bronchi...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510007
Daniel Saenz-Abad, Jose Antonio Gimeno-Orna, Maria del Carmen Lahoza-Perez, Elena Rivero-Sanz, Marta Jordan-Domingo, Artur Juan-Arribas, Maria del Mar Becerra-Mayor and Cristina Baquer-Sahun
Article Type: Original Research | First Published: October 30, 2015
This is a case-control retrospective analytical study. The cases were patients deceased during hospitalization and controls where those discharged in the same time period. Patients were age-matched and the final outcome of the study was hospital mortality. Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS) and Charlson comorbidity index as well as blood analysis (full blood count, glucose, renal function, ions) were determined. Abnormal glucose levels (dysgly...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510006
Tobias Willich and Andreas Goette
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 01, 2015
This review provides an overview of the available therapeutic options for acute care and management of malignant ventricular arrhythmias (VA) such as ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF) and electrical storm (ES). As therapeutic options antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy, implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy (ICD), radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) and neuroaxial modulation like stellate ganglion blockade or r...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510005
Carol Ann Kelly and Dave Lynes
Article Type: Non-systematic Review | First Published: September 14, 2015
Oxygen's image, together with its reputation, is changing. No longer is it regarded as a benign panacea for all clinical presentations; indeed it is now increasingly evident that oxygen has the potential to contribute to clinical deterioration and mortality. There is an emerging recognition that oxygen is a drug when administered as a therapeutic intervention and should be used with caution. Contemporary guidelines offer criteria and directives f...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510004
Bethany Radin DO, H Neal Reynolds, Uttam K Bodanapally and David Dreizin
Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 31, 2015
Objective: To review the spectrum of scenarios in which cerebral fat embolism syndrome (CFES) may present, the clinical presentation, traditional diagnostic criteria, and current diagnostic technologies. Methods: Three cases are presented representing Classical presentation (CFES presenting after Intramedullary rods for long bone fractures), Atypical presentation (CFES presenting after long bone fractures without intramedullary rods), and Unexpec...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510003
oortje Godijn, Simone M Smits and Peter HJ van der Voort
Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 14, 2015
In the intensive care unit (ICU) physicians are challenged to predict patient outcome when patients are admitted. Over the years, several tools have been developed for this purpose. Examples are the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) and Sepsis Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scoring systems....
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510002
Julie Kalabalik and Jesse B. Sullivan
Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 30, 2015
Alcohol consumption plays a role in the development of over 200 diseases and conditions in individuals worldwide, including liver cirrhosis, cancers, traumatic injury, and alcohol dependence. In hospitalized patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD), up to 25% will develop acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). In critically ill patients, presence of AWS is associated with increased duration of mechanical ventilation, prolonged intensive care u...
Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3674/1510001
Ivan Ortega Deballon
Article Type: Editorial | First Published: July 18, 2015
Determination of death, the exact moment that a person's death occurs, has been a constant challenge throughout human being history. What we already know is that death usually does not occur abruptly, at a specific time and for all parts of the body simultaneously. Human resistance to degradation by lack of oxygen varies depending on the type of cell and organ. It is possible, for example, for successful cornea transplants from deceased individua...
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