Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology is an open access, peer reviewed journal that publishes information on clinical, preventative, curative and social aspects of Transmittable diseases. The main objective of the journal is to set a forum for publication, education, and exchange of opinions, and to promote research and publications globally. The Journal provides a platform for all clinicians, surgeons and health professionals to contribute their findings and help raise awareness among community in various infectious diseases and its epidemiology. We aim to provide free, immediate and unlimited access to highest quality clinical content via open access platform.

Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology focus on discovery and innovation in various aspects of Airborne Disease, Biological Contamination, Blood-borne Disease, Clinical Bacteriology, Clinical Mycology, Clinical Virology, Coinfection, Copenhagen Consensus, Disease Diffusion Mapping, Emerging Diseases, Epidemics, Foodborne Illness, Globalization and Disease, Human Microbiome Project, Infection Control, Infectious Disease Dynamics, Infectious Disease Eradication, Medical Bioinformatics for Infectious Diseases, Neglected Diseases, Nosocomial Infection, Pandemics, Pathology, Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeler, Threshold Host Density, Tropical Disease, Waterborne Diseases, Zoonotic Infections, etc. Original Article, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Short Communications, Case Reports, Perspectives/Opinions, Letters, Short Note and Commentaries are accepted for publication. All articles published in the journal are subject to a rigorous peer review process. It encourages authors to publish their experimental and theoretical results in detail to disseminate the updated research findings.

Journal Information

Title: Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

ISSN: 2474-3658

Editor-in-chief: Abubaker ME Sidahmed

NLM title abbreviation: J Infect Dis Epidemiol

ICV: 91.55

ISO abbreviation: J Infect Dis Epidemiol

Other titles: JIDE

Category: Infectious

DOI: 10.23937/2474-3658

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email:

Articles Search by   Keyword   |   Journal title   |   Author name   |   DOI


 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510309

Investigation of Circulating Vaccine Derived Poliovirus Type 2 Outbreak, Sierra Leone, December 2020: Lessons from the First Three Cases

Gebrekrstos Negash Gebru, Amara Alhaji Sheriff and Adel Hussein Elduma

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: 2023/09/14

Circulating Vaccine Derived Poliovirus (cVDPV), is a genetic mutation of the Sabin virus. Sierra Leone reported its last case of wild polio virus in 2010. However, in December 2020, the national disease surveillance program was notified of three people with acute flaccid paralysis who had cVDPV2. We investigated to identify the source, determine the magnitude of the outbreak and risk factors....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510308

'Don't Let the Problem go Unheard. Let's Get Rid of Rabies' - A Review of the Past, Present and Future Perspective of Rabies

Man Mohan Mehndiratta, Renuka Upadhyaya, Vasundhra Agarwal and Monalisa Vegda

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: 2023/08/31

Rabies, a negative strand RNA virus belonging to the genus Lyssavirus has existed since hundreds of years. Available historical texts called it 'an ancient curse'. From Aristotle in fourth century BC to present day, rabies virus has existed in various species of animals. Modern day molecular epidemiology has proven the evolving nature of the virus. The virus showcases considerable genetic plasticity and hence it still exists as a tangible threat in the 21st century....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510306

Mapping the Required Reporting of Hepatitis C Virus Ribonucleic Acid Test Results in the United States

Arjun P Vij, Cassidy Hernandez-Tamayo, Chrysovalantis Stafylis and Jeffrey D Klausner

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: 2023/07/3

Reporting of hepatitis C virus (HCV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) test results is a critical public health activity to facilitate the elimination of HCV. Comprehensive surveillance of both positive and negative HCV RNA test results is essential to informing and monitoring public health strategies for HCV elimination....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510305

Risk of Neutropenia with the Use of Ceftaroline: A Review

Samah Qasmieh, Joelle Ataessien, Monique House, Shakib Zegar, Tuiana Brown and Ryan Davidson

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: 2023/07/19

Ceftaroline is a fifth-generation cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is a clinically distinct feature for a member of this class. Cephalosporins have previously been associated with neutropenia, a serious hematologic condition with an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) falling below 1500-1800 cells/μL. Since its FDA approval in 2010, ceftaroline has been associated with neutropenia in several studies. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510304

Coping with the Ongoing SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza

Mujahed I Mustafa and Ahmed Mohammed

Article Type: Commentary Article | First Published: 2023/05/31

The ongoing SARS-COV-2 pandemic has brought about unprecedented challenges to individuals, communities, and healthcare systems worldwide. As the world braces for a potential second wave of COVID-19 infections, the seasonal influenza season is also looming. This article explores the coping strategies that individuals and healthcare systems can adopt to manage both the SARS-COV-2 pandemic and seasonal influenza. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510303

Erythema Induratum of Bazin: A New Case

Najoua Ammar, Mariame Meziane, Nadia Ismaili, Laila Benzekri and Karima Senouci

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: 2023/05/31

Erythema induratum of Bazin (EIB) is a rare skin form of tuberculosis (TB) that is most commonly seen in middle-aged women. Clinically, EIB can mimic several skin conditions, which often leads to a delay in diagnosis. We report here the observation of a new case of EIB, presenting as a chronic nodular panniculitis, in a 38-year-old female patient....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510302

Surveillance for Recent Infection among Newly Diagnosed Persons Living with HIV in Nigeria: The Implication for Epidemic Control

Moses Katbi, Amalachukwu Ukaere, Adefisayo Adedoyin, Maryam Bello, Adeoye Adegboye, Helina Meri, Angela Agweye and Rachel Goldstein

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/05/31

HIV recency is used to distinguish between a recent HIV infection i.e., within the last 12 months, and a long-term HIV infection. In the era of test and treat, identifying and preventing new HIV infections in undiagnosed individuals remains a high priority in our response to the epidemic especially in effectively interrupting HIV transmission within the population. Recent infection assay helps to diagnose people with a recent infection which ultimately helps to identify/map out active infection ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510300

A Retrospective Study Comparing CRB-65, MEWS and qSOFA Scoring System in Predicting Clinical Outcomes in Adult Patients with Severe and Critical COVID-19 Infection

Rafael Jeric C Bautista, MD and Pamela Rose Matti, MD, FPCP, FPSMID

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: 2023/04/27

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) first discovered in Wuhan, China. The disease has caused over 80 million total cases recorded globally with deaths nearly reaching 2 million. In the Philippines, more than 400,000 cases were recorded at the start of the year 2021...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510299

Current Strategies to Improve Efficiency of Recombinant Subunit Vaccines


Article Type: Original Review | First Published: 2023/04/17

Global population growth and rising health concerns have highlighted the importance of developing effective vaccination strategies, and subunit vaccines hold great promise for meeting market demand. Compared to traditional whole-cell vaccines, subunit vaccines contain only a part of the infectious microorganism to induce an immune response against the main pathogen. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510298

Invasive Diseases Due to Fatal Staphylococcus caprae Infection: A Case Series and Literature Review

Antonio Mastroianni, MD, Sonia Greco, MD, Valeria Vangeli, MD, Maria Vittoria Mauro, MD and Roberto Manfredi, MD

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: March 31, 2023

We report a case series of fatal invasive diseases due to Staphylococcus caprae. We describe the first cases of S. caprae sepsis in two italian patients. In the first patient there was also evidence of the fourth case reported in the English language literature of mitral endocarditis. We also discuss the main features of differential diagnosis on the basis of a literature review....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510297

Acute Thyroiditis Complicating a Systemic Parvovirus B-19 Infection: A Unique Adult Case Report in Italy and Literature Review

Antonio Mastroianni, MD, Sonia Greco, MD, Valeria Vangeli, MD, Maria Vittoria Mauro, MD and Roberto Manfredi, MD

Article Type: Letter to the Editor | First Published: March 29, 2023

A very rare case of acute Graves-Basedow adult disease prompted by a systemic Parvovirus B-19 infection is presented and discussed, on the basis of the most recent literature evidences in this field. Parvovirus B19 is a small virus parasiting erythrocytes frequently underestimated in clinical practice, when excluding patients with severe hematological diseases....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510296

Maternal Death Due to Late COVID-19 Diagnosis in Moyamba District Sierra Leone, 2021, Case Report

Brima Akwame Gamanga, Adel Hussein Elduma, Gbessay Saffa, Jean Leonard Hakizimana, Kassim Kamara, Amara Alhaji Sheriff and Gebrekrstos Negash Gebru

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 26, 2023

Little information exists on maternal deaths related to COVID-19 disease. We investigated maternal death due to COVID-19 infection and identify risk factors in Sierra Leone, 2021. We collected demographic and clinical data, reviewed medical records, and COVID-19 vaccination status. The decedent was nurse, 34-years-old, pregnant, 20 weeks gestation, and working at the district hospital. The pregnant woman died on June 26, 2021 with positive COVID-19 result....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510295

Occupational Exposure to Infectious Diseases among Health Workers: Effects, Managements and Recommendations

Godfred Yawson Scott, Kengo Nathan Ezie, Zakariya'u Dauda, Angyiba Serge Andigema and Felix Amekpor

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 05, 2023

Healthcare professionals work with patients in settings that are regarded as some of the highest-risk workplace conditions. Healthcare workers' lives, safety, and well-being are in danger due to occupational risks such biological, chemical, physical, ergonomic, psychological, fire and explosion, and electrical dangers. According to estimates, 1 in 10 healthcare professionals worldwide get a sharp injury each year....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510294

Increasing Cases of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection in West Africa: Is Combination Therapy and Immunomodulators the Best Cure?

Godfred Yawson Scott, Noble Princess Chinelo, Zakariya'u Dauda and Azubuike Immanuel

Article Type: Perspective | First Published: February 22, 2023

West Africa has a high endemicity of chronic hepatitis B, which causes liver cancer, cirrhosis, liver failure, and chronic liver disease, all of which put a severe strain on the region's already crippled healthcare system. This disease kills nearly 200,000 people in West Africa each year. As a result, finding a cure is critical. Several scientists have developed potential treatments for this disease over the years. However, the majority of them have failed....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510293

Severe Community - Acquired Achromobacter denitrificans Cellulitis

Antonio Mastroianni, MD, Sonia Greco, MD, Valeria Vangeli, MD, Maria Vittoria Mauro, MD, Francesca Greco, MD, Filippo Urso, MD and Roberto Manfredi, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 18, 2023

Achromobacter is a genus of non-fermenting gram-negative bacteria, mainly isolated from the respiratory tract of people with cystic fibrosis, but recognized as the causal agent of different types of infections, especially in individuals and with chronic diseases and immune deficiency. Skin infections are very rare and not easy to manage also due to the intrinsic resistance to various antibiotics empirically used in the treatment of skin infections. In this short report, we intend to describe a r...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510292

Circulation of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant (B1.1.529) in the General Population of Western Burkina Faso, West Africa

Yacouba Sawadogo, Jessica Julie Chantal Samba, Raïssa Muriel de Souza, Noutin Fernand Michodigni, Arsène Zongo, Amariane Marie Madeleine Koné, Isidore Traoré, Odilon Kaboré, Cheick Ahmed Ouattara, Natasha Dubois Cauwelaert, Essia Belarbi, Eric D'Ortenzio, Dramane Kania and Abdoul-Salam Ouedraogo

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 31, 2023

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant was responsible of an increase of the COVID-19 incidence worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (B1.1.529) in the general population in Burkina Faso and provide better preventive strategies. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted from November 2021 to November 2022. All individuals with PCR-positive results were tested with the DI SARS-CoV-2 MOC/I Mul...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510291

Epidemiological and Diagnostic Aspects of Cholera Epidemics in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo between January 2011 and June 2022

Patrick AYONGA NDEBA, Bruce WEMBULUA SHINGA, Fatimata WONE, Alain- Bruno BARDIGUYO, Lassina DIALLO, Jackson BYAMUNGU MPINGA, Henriette MULASI KITUTU, Raphael KABANGWA KAKONGO SENGA, Viviane Marie-Pierre CISSE and Roger Clément Kouly TINE

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 31, 2023

Nearly 4 million cases of cholera are reported each year worldwide, including 189,000 (5 to 14%) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The eastern provinces, known as “hot spots”, report more than half of these cases. Describe the epidemiological and diagnostic aspects of cholera in eastern DRC....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510290

Pregnancy Outcomes during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Study Based on a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sri Lanka

Thumula Ratnayake, Dompege Don Dananjaya Srimal Bandara and Mohottalalage Sunethra Sandhya Kumari Bandara

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 31, 2023

The COVID-19 pandemic response affected maternal and neonatal health services worldwide. This study aimed to explore the impact of the pandemic on pregnancy outcomes, such as monthly stillbirth rates, percentage of monthly lower segment cesarean sections (LSCS), percentage of monthly preterm births, and percentage of monthly neonatal unit admissions at a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. The study was conducted as a retrospective medical record-based study and included a total of 28,292 deliv...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510289

Patient Characteristics and Outcomes among Two COVID-19 Therapeutics Registries in Maine

Kyle D Massey, PharmD, BCIDP, Astha Kakkad, MBBS, MSPH, Jennifer L Trumbo, MS, MPH, Krysta Anderson, BS and Rebekah Gass, MD

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: January 06, 2023

This study compared protocolized use of investigational COVID-19 therapies and determined trends among risk factors, disease severity, and outcomes in two patient registries representing 75% of hospitalizations state-wide. Establishing a local pandemic registry provides greater insight into pattern of disease, patient care, and safety of therapeutics during the pandemic....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510288

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM Antibodies and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Consulted at the Bamenda Regional Hospital, Cameroon

Yamssi Cédric, Noumedem Anangmo Christelle Nadia, Niba Felicien Ambe, Gamago Nkadeu Guy- Armand and Vincent Khan Payne

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2022

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection with public health importance. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and its risk factors among pregnant women consulted at the Bamenda Regional Hospital. This study was a hospital-based cross-sectional study carried out on pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic at the Bamenda Regional Hospital....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510287

COVID-19 Histamine Theory: Why Anti-Histamines Should Be Incorporated as the Basic Component in COVID-19 Management?

Harold L Mashauri

Article Type: Perspective | First Published: December 31, 2022

Since the emergency of COVID-19 in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, WHO declared COVID-19 to be a global pandemic crisis on March 11, 2020 [1]. The key in facing this outbreak lies greatly on proper understanding of its pathophysiology. A number of mechanisms have been proposed up to date with some supported clinical findings from the cases which has been successful treated [2]....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510286

Monkeypox Virus: Transfer from Endemic Areas to Non- Endemic Areas Due to Ease of Travel

Moslem Ghaseminia

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: December 19, 2022

Monkeypox is a viral infection with skin manifestations. After the identification of this virus more than fifty years ago, more or less cases were observed in endemic countries. The spread of the disease to non-endemic countries has also occurred through the transmission of infected monkeys as the main host of the virus. Today, with the development of international vehicles, the risk of spreading viral diseases to different parts of the world has increased....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510285

Sero-Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Pregnant Women Attending Ante Natal Care in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH)

Dawet A , Yusuf K, Golnaan CH, Lengnen ET, Buhari MN and Yakubu DP

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: November 30, 2022

Toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii is an asymptomatic disease, but often takes a severe and life- threatening course during pregnancy, in foetuses, new bon babies and immune-compromised people. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women attending Ante Natal Clinic in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) and factors associated with it....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510284

Club Convergence over Time for Infectious Disease in China

Weiwei Wang, Yusheng Chen, Qiyuan Li and Jianping Zhu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 30, 2022

Comprehensive strategies have been implemented to prevent the spread of infectious diseases in China; however, there is a lack of evidence on their achievements and traits-based infection heterogeneity. This study was designed to assess the spatiotemporal pattern and convergence feature at the national and regional levels....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2572-3235.1510096

Knowledge of Common Radiological Investigations in Emergency Setting by Physicians in Bahrain

Bayan Hasan, MD and Wadie Yousif

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 17, 2022

Radiological imaging modalities serve as a cornerstone of diagnosis and management of a variety of medical conditions and thus are increasingly used by numerous physicians across differing specialties. Nevertheless, it is well established that radiation exposure poses a risk towards patients’ safety, particularly the risk of future cancer development....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510283

Magnitude of Unsuppressed HIV Viral Load at Amhara Public Health Institute Dessie Branch, Northeast Ethiopia

Mohammed Seid Yesuf, Daniel Dagne, Minwuyelet Maru, Birtukan Shiferaw, Assefa Missaye and Seid Ali Desalegn

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 30, 2022

Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)/is the leading cause of global burden of disease. The main goal of antiretroviral treatment is to suppress the replication of the virus in the body. Suppressed viral replication facilitates restoration of the immune function and significantly reduces the risk of HIV transmission. Viral load testing is the most recommended method to diagnose and confirm antiretroviral treatment failure. Epidemiological data on viral suppre...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510282

Single and Multiobjective Optimal Control of the COVID Pandemic Model Involving Hospitalizations and Non- Pharmaceutical Control Actions

Lakshmi Sridhar

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 31, 2022

In this paper, single and multiobjective optimal control is performed on a Corona Virus disease model involving hospitalizations and non-pharmaceutical intervention tasks to minimize the damage done by the virus. This model considers the effects of hospitalization and non-pharmaceutical interventions like quarantining and social distancing....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510281

A Mini-Review of Neonatal Sepsis Patterns with Emphasis on Zoonotic Causes

Daniel Geleta and Bersissa Kumsa

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: October 31, 2022

Neonatal sepsis is a clinical syndrome that involves a systemic infection of the newborn during the first 28 days of life, with a high contribution of zoonotic sources worldwide. Sepsis is not, therefore, a monolithic condition. It encompasses a spectrum of illnesses that range from minor signs and symptoms to organ dysfunction and shock. Infection may occur by hematogenous, transplacental spread from a mother or by ascending infection from the cervix. Commonly, it is classified as early-onset (...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510280

Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns and Biofilm Production by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli from Reproductive Age Women in a Region of NSW

Timothy Kudinha and Fanrong Kong

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: October 19, 2022

Urinary tract infections (UTIs), mostly caused by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), are important human infections. Understanding UTI pathogenesis is important for combating the rise in treatment failure and recurrent infections. We studied the distribution of biofilm production by host and non-host factors, among UPEC antibiotic resistant and sensitive cystitis isolates, from reproductive age women....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510279

Corona Virus (COVID-19) Vaccine: Challenges and Prospects in Nigeria: A Review

IA Simon-Oke, R Nasiru and OJ Afolabi

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 30, 2022

The emergence of the novel Corona virus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan city, China, in December, 2019 ushered in changes in the state of events globally. The pandemic has shaken the global health system and economy to their bases. The epidemic of Covid-19 is still ongoing and showing no signs of decreasing trend. An intriguing fact is that in every decade of the 21st century, there is a new major corona virus epidemic; severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) IN 2002, Middle East respiratory syndro...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510278

Willingness to Accept COVID-19 Vaccine and Associated Factors among University Undergraduates in Southern Nigeria

Andrew Ifeanyichukwu OBI, MBBS, FMCPH, Evans NWANKAEGHO, MBBS, Ewere Scholastica EHINZE, MBBS, Victoria OBADIA, MBBS, Ekaete TOBIN, MBBS, FWACP, Ijeoma OKOLI, MBBS, MWACP, Izehiuwa Gertrude Enato, MBBS, FWACP, Bruce OSA, MBBS, FWACS and Regina Uwaoma OBI, MSc, PhD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 28, 2022

The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly and adversely impacted various aspects of our societies from health systems, tourism, education, economic growth, social interactions and even individual life. In addition to the various non-pharmacological interventions put in place globally, a safe and efficacious vaccine was one of the most promising strategies to curtail the virus, save lives and quickly end the public health crisis....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510277

Inflammatory Markers and Hematologic Indices in the Prediction of Severity of COVID-19: A Single Center Study in Southern Philippines

Meccar Moniem H Elino, MD, Michael John P Pecaoco, MD, Kathryn U Roa, MD, MPH, FPCP, FPSMID, CSPSH and Jessie F Orcasitas, MD, FPCP, FPCCP

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 14, 2022

Various diagnostic tests across COVID-19 literatures were employed as surrogate markers in COVID-19, wherein interleukin-6 (IL-6) - gauge for cytokine storm or impending severity - is not readily available. This study determined the clinical value of inflammatory markers and hematologic indices as warning indicators in the prediction of severity of COVID-19 infection. Cut-off values were also determined....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510276

Toxicity and Antiplasmodial Assessments of Chromolaena odorata Leaf Extract on Plasmodium berghei-Infected Mice

Confidence Ogechi Nworgu, Kinsley Elele and Elias Adikwu

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 12, 2022

This study assessed the toxicity and antiplasmodial profile of the ethanolic leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata on Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. The extract was screen qualitatively and quantitatively for phytochemical constituents. Adult Swiss albino mice (20-23 g) of n = 5/group were inoculated with Plasmodium berghei intraperitoneally and were orally treated with the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) and...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510275

Re-Emergence of Monkeypox in Sierra Leone, a Challenge for Clinicians in a Developing Country, 2021: A Case Report

Paul Mansaray, Adel Hussein Elduma, Leonard Hakizimana, Kassim Kamara, Alden Henderson and Gebrekrstos Negash Gebru

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 11, 2022

Monkeypox is an emerging zoonotic disease with potentially serious illness with similar symptoms as smallpox but with the distinguishing symptom of lymphadenopathy. On March 9, 2021, health authorities in the Koinadugu District in Sierra Leone reported a suspected case of monkeypox. We investigated this case to confirm the diagnosis, and to identify the source of infection and risk factors, and institute control measures....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510274

First Few Cases Study to Investigate Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of COVID-19 in the Early Phase of the Response, Sierra Leone 2020

Kassim Kamara, Gebrekrstos Negash Gebru, Angella Sandra Namwase, James Sylvester Squire, Monique Foster, Tushar Singh and Michelle L Sloan

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 08, 2022

Sierra Leone reported its first case of COVID-19 on March 30, 2020. This report describes the clinical characteristics and the epidemiological features of the first few cases and contacts of COVID-19 in Sierra Leone....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510273

Monkey-Pox Virus and It’s Impact

Vikshit Tahiliani and Tetiana Kolotylo

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 05, 2022

Monkey-pox has been one of the most recent outbreak in more than 10 countries worldwide. Monkeypox is a DNA virus that is an orthopox virus family which is actually related to smallpox, but not as dangerous. So some key differences are that it is a DNA virus and whereas with SARS-CoV-2 which had 30,000 RNA codes basically, the monkey-pox is a double stranded DNA virus and its much larger virus which has 200,000 base pairs, so probably more pairs to sequence and probably more genes to sequence as...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510272

Incidence and Predictors of Pregnancy among HIV Positive Women on ART in North West Ethiopia, a Retrospective Cohort Study

Yenesew Fentahun Gebrie, Tadesse Mihretie Dessie and Dawit Yeshiwas

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 04, 2022

The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and significant factors of incidence of pregnancy among HIV positive women under ART follow up....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510271

Controversies of Arterial Hypertension in People Living with HIV on Antiretroviral Treatment

Daniel Vargas-Pacherrez

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 13, 2022

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV carriers increased the life expectancy of this population, favoring the emergence of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and cancer as the main causes of death. To review the literature on the prevalence of arterial hypertension (AH) and associated factors in HIV carriers using ART....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510270

Prevalence of Haemoparasites among Blood Donors Attending the Regional Hospital Center of Franceville (Southern Gabon)

Hilaire Moundounga Kenguele, Bourdettes Meye, Thiery Ndong and Patrick Mickala

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 13, 2022

Blood donation is a lifesaving intervention and a precious gift for patients in urgent need. However, the blood should be carefully checked for transfusion-transmitted infections such as HIV, hepatitis, syphilis, malaria and other endemic haemoparasites. In Gabon, like in many other African countries, blood is not routinely screened for malaria as recommended by the World health organization....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510269

A Review of the 2008/2009 and 2018/2019 Cholera Outbreaks in Zimbabwe: Call for Public Health Action

Amon Munyenyiwa, Godfrey Musuka, Masceline Jenipher Mutsaka-Makuvaza, Tolbert Mucheri, Nicholas Midzi, Aspire Mudavanhu, Charles Maponga, Tafadzwa Jaime Musandirangana, Zindoga Mukandavire, Maines Munyanyi and Portia Manangazira

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 13, 2022

Cholera is a diarrheal infectious disease that continues to cause morbidity and mortality in Zimbabwe. This study reviews the morbidity and mortality data of cholera in Zimbabwe during the 2008/2009 and 2018/2019 outbreaks, critically discussing the factors responsible for the outbreaks and then suggests recommendations for public health actions....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510268

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Iraq during a Period from 2000-2020

Nadham Kadham Mahdi, M.Sc, Ph.D

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 01, 2022

The prevalence history for intestinal protozoal and helminthic infections among Iraqi people is reviewed from 2000-2020. The distribution of the intestinal parasites is mentioned in different communities including hospital patients, primary school children, food handlers, general population, immunocompromised patients, malnourished patients, sicklers and day-care centers attendance in both rural and urban regions....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510267

Tigecycline-Induced Clinical Jaundice: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Sarah Ali Althomali

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 17, 2022

Tigecycline gained large popularity due to its efficacy against multi-drug-resistant organisms. Tigecycline has a good safety profile, and its most encountered side effects are nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. However, tigecycline has been associated with a mild and transient hepatotoxicity....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510266

Evaluation of the Quality of Malaria Case Management at a Rural Health Facility in the Savannah Region of Ghana

Joseph Owusu-Marfo, Yaa Nyarko Agyeman, Augusta Soninour Kolekang, Samuel Bimpong and Abdul Manan Sumani

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 17, 2022

Malaria remains a major public health issue in the world especially in the resourced-limited countries. Ghana is not left out as the incidence of malaria still accounts 40% of all OPD cases....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510265

Guillain-Barre Syndrome Post-COVID 19 Vaccination with Sinovac CoronaVac in a 59-Year-Old Male: First Reported Case in the Philippines

Bello Marq Wilson, MD and Aguirre Amador III

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 17, 2022

COVID-19 pandemic has severely disrupted our lives, wrecking havoc in our economies and pushing the healthcare sector to its breaking point. This prompted world governments to come up with different measures and protocols in the hope of containing and preventing the further spread of the COVID-19 virus....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510264

Factors Affecting Tuberculosis Case Detection in Kwahu East District of the Eastern Region, Ghana - A Health Facility-Based Cross-Sectional Study among TB Patients

Mukasa Kabiri, Anthony Agamba, Paul Kofi Awuffor, Helena Sakyibea Darkwa, Kortey Larweh, Kenneth Owusu Frimpong and Ayenor Michael

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: June 16, 2022

Tuberculosis is ranked the second cause of mortalities in the world only behind the deadly COVID-19. The disease is very communicable especially in poorly ventilated environments and crowded places. High risk of transmission from patients to health workers and then to the general population has been a great worry for the tuberculosis control programme worldwide....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510263

Epidemiological Study of COVID-19 in Single Center in Baghdad City-Iraq

Yasmin H Talibv and Suadad J AL-daboony

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 31, 2022

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, a novel strain of corona virus was first detected in December 2019 in Wuhan, a city of Chinas Hubei province with population of 11 million, after an outbreak of pneumonia without an obvious cause....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510262

Epidemiological and Clinical Report of Patients during the First Wave of COVID-19 in Gambella Region, South West Ethiopia: 2020. A Retrospective Cohort Study

Abreha Addis Gesese, Endale Zenebe Behire, Tarekegn Tesfaw Alemu and Tsegay Gebreselassie

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 30, 2022

Covid-19 has continued to cause all round devastation globally, including our country, Ethiopia. To halt the spread, knowing the epidemiological, laboratory, and clinical characteristics of patients is significant....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510260

An Accuracy-Based Approach to the Microbiologic Diagnosis of Pulmonary Infection: Part III

John Ferguson, MD, MPH, Cyprien Jungels, DO and Michael Gailey, DO

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 12, 2022

Similar to that of bacterial infection as described in Part 1 and fungal infection described in Part 2, the performance of diagnostic tests for viral pneumonia and parasitic pneumonia are not well described. We undertook a literature search to assess the accuracy of diagnostic tests for pneumonia, identified through a search of MEDLINE-indexed journals. Sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests for pneumonia were calculated with respect to various reference standards. A battery of diagnost...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510259

Emergence of Marburg Virus Disease in West Africa amid COVID-19 and Ebola: Efforts, Challenges, and Recommendations to Prevent the Next Public Health Crisis

Jannel A Lawrence, BSc, Muhammad Haseeb Ul Rasool, MBBS, Charmy Parikh, MBBS, Selia Chowdhury, MBBS, Alexandra Sueldo, BSc, Sarosh Sarwar, MBBS, Arpit Mago, Pawan Kumar Thada, MBBS and Mona Skeikh, MD

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 30, 2022

Marburg virus disease (MVD) is a type of hemorrhagic fever caused by a genetically unique animal-borne RNA virus of the filovirus family-like Ebola virus. The African fruit bat is the known reservoir of this virus, and due to its animal-to-animal, animal-to-human, and human-to-human transmission patterns, it is capable of rapid spread. The history of previous MVD outbreaks shows that this can be highly fatal, and the fatality rate can reach up to 90%. Most MVD outbreaks have been in Africa and c...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510258

Acute Bell’s Palsy: A Neurological Manifestation of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2)

Cameron YS Lee, DMD, MD, PHD, MPH, MSEd

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 30, 2022

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection affects multiple organ systems with varied clinical presentation. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms associated with COVID-19 infection involve the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. However, clinicians should be aware that neurological manifestations could be the only clinical sign and symptom reported by patients infected...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510257

Role of Clinical, Laboratory, and Radiological Manifestations in Prognostication of COVID-19 in 804 Patients Admitted to Three Tertiary Care Centers in Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Rommana Mehdi, Arshee Khan, Priyank Gupta, Aisha Siddiqui, Anam Ahsan, Mona Hosseini, Farah Ghayoor, Jawahir Tahir, Samya Javed, Saubia Fathima, Zufana Nasir, Hana Mohd Sughaiyer, Erum Rehman, Nimmi Moni, Salama Buqaish, Eman Abdelwahed, Deema Harb, Beyla Zuberi and Laila AlDabal

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: April 20, 2022

December 2019 heralded the onset of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in the Hubei province in China. Ever since the disease has spread across continents resulting in rising magnitudes of cases and fatalities. SARS-CoV-2 is a beta coronavirus that belongs to the family Coronaviridae and order Nidovirales. Six coronavirus species have been identified to infect humans and cause mild disease so far; SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh member of the coronaviruses that infect humans. Fatal illne...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510256

Prevalence of Diminished Vitamin D and Association between Vitamin D-Levels and Morbidity by Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) among Hospital Staff in Northern Bavaria during a Seasonal Flu Epidemic

Michael Holbach, MPH and Bernd Seese

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: April 15, 2022

Although vitamin D is known to have an influence on the immune system, the impact of a low level on the susceptibility to ARI is not very clear. So the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of diminished vitamin D in adult workers and the relationship between vitamin D-levels and the morbidity of acute respiratory infections (ARI) during the influenza epidemic in the first quarter of 2018 (Q1/2018) in Germany. Included were 60 employees of a hospital in northern Bavaria. Immediatel...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510255

Epidemiologic Characteristics of COVID-19 Exposure in Neonates Admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Helen Kest, MD, MPH, CPH, Linda Skroce, MD, Subhashree Datta-Bhutada, MD, Jaimee Bogusz, DO, Estephanie Rivero, MD and David Goldberg, MD

Article Type: Retrospective Study | First Published: March 31, 2022

Descriptive study focused on SARS-COV-2 exposed neonates admitted to a tertiary center Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Longitudinal cohort retrospective study of neonates admitted to a tertiary center NICU during March to August 2020. Key indices (risk factors) are described for exposed neonates in order to draw conclusions for preventive strategies. There were 459 deliveries during the study period. 177(12%) mothers tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 with 184 SARS-COV-2 exposed (exposed) neona...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510254

Socio-Economic Factors and ITN Policies in Senegal, a Country Close to Malaria Elimination

Elvire Mfueni Bikundi, Annie Robert, Catherine Bouland, Edouard Akotionga, Ndèye Mareme Sougou and Yves Coppieters

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 31, 2022

Malaria is a global public health problem with many cases each year in the world (241 million cases with 247,000 deaths (67% were under five children) in 2020. Most malaria cases occur in Sub-Saharan African countries (93%). The objective of our study was to observe how is implemented ITN policies against malaria with a view on socio-economic factors, in Senegal, which is country close to malaria elimination. Data used for analysis is from Demographics and Health Surveys 2019 for Senegal. Linear...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510253

Achieving Zero Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgical Site Infections for Over Four Years: Our Experience Utilizing Bundle Elements, Education, and Audits

Mohamed Adawee, MSN-IPC, CIC, CPHQ, Ara Pridjian, MD, Linnea Eifert, CST, Chaney Manarin, MPH and Viviana Snyder, BSN, RN, CIC

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 14, 2022

SSI prevention bundle elements are pre-operative, peri-operative, and post-operative steps that are required to achieve best results. We follow the CDC’s SSI prevention bundle checklist recommendations. Pre-operative bundle elements include Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening and nasal decolonization. Antiseptic prophylaxis via CHG soap or wipes are used for bathing the night before or morning of the procedure, antimicrobial prophylaxis is administered one to two hours ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510252

Determinants of Death among COVID-19 Patients Admitted in Amhara Region COVID-19 Treatment Centers, Ethiopia, 2021, Unmatched Case Control Study

Zelalem Animut, Melkamu Bedimo, Abebayehu Bitew, Sefineh Fenta, Anteneh Mengist and Tewodros Nigussie

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 14, 2022

The rapid emergence of the novel corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in millions of infected patients and deaths in worldwide. Studies conducted till today show that the outcome of COVID-19 varies based on individual characteristics. The purpose of this investigation was to identify the determinants of COVID-19 deaths in Amhara Region. The study aimed to identify the determinants of death among COVID-19 patients admitted in Amhara region COVID-19 treatment centers, Ethiopia, 2021. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510251

The Pattern of COVID-19 among Hospitalized Athletics Patient: A Comparative Study from Basrah City, Southern Iraq

Ali Raheem Hashim, Haithem Jawad Kadhum and Hassan Ala Farid

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: March 09, 2022

Acute infection with the novel coronavirus causing COVID-19 illness results in a wide range of clinical manifestations in the general adult population. The clinical course and effects in non-athletic people have already been studied, but insufficient data is available on athletics. This study is designed to evaluate the pattern, clinical course, the outcome of COVID-19 among athletics in Basrah city in the south of Iraq. A comparative study design was used to compare 18 athletics with sexed an...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510243

The COVID-19

Luiz Gonzaga Francisco de Assis Barros D’Elia Zanella, MD

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: January 13, 2022

There is a significant imbalance in the generation of NAD/NADH+ (niacin), which affects chemical reactions in the intracellular environment in COVID-19 and yellow fever. From tryptophan and its metabolic pathways and oxidative stress, the process of understanding SARSCoV- 2 infection becomes more concrete, as the infection seems to interfere in these metabolic pathways, in addition to the paradoxical role of kynurenine that causes inflammation by blocking the BH4 pathway. Understanding metabolic...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510250

A Comparative Study of Acinetobacter Infections in COVID and Non-COVID Patients

Rayeesa Faheem Syed, MBBS, MS, Sadhana Yelamanchili, MD, FRCPath and Srinivas Thati, MBBS, MS, MRCS, FRCS

Article Type: Case Series Study | First Published: February 10, 2022

Acinetobacter species are associated with high mortality, with A. baumannii being associated with a significant number of hospitals acquired infections worldwide. Multidrug resistance makes it challenging to control or treat these infections. Aim of this study is to evaluate the risk factors and compare the clinical outcomes of Acinetobacter infections in a tertiary care hospital, in COVID and non COVID patients. A retrospective observational study was conducted. A list of all cases with positiv...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510249

What are the Missed Opportunities in Prevention Interventions for HBV, HCV and HIV among Key Populations along the Northern Transport Corridor in Kenya?

Joseph Mwangi, Timothy Muasya, Eva Mwai, Joyceline Kinyua, Dama Olungae, Rency Lel, Lihana Raphael, Judy Chege, Alex Maiyo, Nancy Lagat, Lucy Kanyara, Oira Robert, Sheila Kageha, Vincent Okoth, Elijah Songok and Khamadi Samoel

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 05, 2022

Viral infections including HIV, HBV and HCV are important public health concern. Due to shared risk factors, mode of transmission and chronicity, prevention of these infections is likely to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with the viruses. While a number of prevention interventions are available and have been rolled out globally, a number of factors account for continued transmission of these three viral infections. Estimates indicate that close to 600 million people are infected with ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510248

Black Fungus Development in SARS-COVID-19 Patients

Danilo Coco and Silvana Leanza

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 04, 2022

Mucormycosis refers to a fungal infection resulting from fungus that belong to the order Mucorales and was first described in 1885 by Paltauf. Being the third most prevalent opportunistic fungal infection after candidiasis and aspergillosis, it causes significant endothelial damage by invading the vascular wall. Multiorgan failure and sepsis develop owing to its spread toward the brain. It usually has poor prognosis and it is impacted by the time it takes to diagnose and most significantly the p...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510247

Post-COVID 19 and Neuropathic Pain


Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 03, 2022

In this study, we compared neuropathic pain in post-COVID patients with a healthy control group who did not have COVID-19. We aimed to draw attention to neuropathic pain in the post-COVID period. A total of 169 individuals participated in the study. 89 cases constituted the post- COVID group and 80 cases constituted the control group. In our case series, patients were in the post-COVID period and the control groups were assessed with the Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) and Self-Leeds Assessment of...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510246

Cholera Scourge in Nigeria: Promoting Environmental Sanitation Practice to Achieving Good Health for All

Olajide Mariam Olaitan, Tajudeen Kaosarat Oluwatobi, Popoola Victor Oluwaseun, Onyeanusi Sandra Adaobi, Makinde Abubakar Abiodun, Oladapo Rasaq Kayode, Onyinyechi Patience Obidiro, Oyetola Afeez Babatunde, Adekunle Olajide and Akinrinde Barakat

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: January 31, 2022

The present surge in cholera cases in Nigeria especially among the vulnerable is quite worrisome and alarming. Several factors account for the prevalence of cholera in Nigeria, which includes but is not limited to poor living conditions, lack of potable water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services. Interestingly, Environmental sanitation has been identified as integral in achieving a healthy environment. It involved controlling all the factors in man’s physical environment which may cause ha...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510245

Persistence Viral Shedding of SARS-CoV-2 in Feces and Potential Transmission

Mauro MV, Greco S, Vitiritti M, Elia N, Mastroianni A and Greco F

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 30, 2022

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to millions of confirmed cases and deaths worldwide. Despite the recent availability of vaccines, with the ongoing and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 worldwide, laboratory testing remains the cornerstone of public health containment and mitigation strategies. Also, although not used routinely in many laboratories, detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA from stool is possible in the pres...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510244

COVID-19: SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence in a Blood Bank in Southern Brazil

Maria Augusta Bogo, Djulia Adriani Frainer, Luisa Pisacane, Paulo Henrique Condeixa de França and Luiz Henrique Melo

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 14, 2022

To determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic individuals in a blood bank in southern Brazil. 1015 serological analyses were performed between November 2020 and March 2021 in Joinville, Brazil, to detect IgG and IgM antibodies against SARSCoV- 2, and the results were correlated with the participants' age, gender, city and neighborhood. The seroprevalence of total antibodies was 40.4%, with reagent IgM detected in 9.4% of cases, IgG in 18.5% and both immunoglobulins ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510242

Efficacy and Safety Assessment of Three Artemisinin- Based Combination Therapy (Acts) in the Treatment of P. falciparum Malaria in Cameroon

Theresia Njuabe Metoh, Roger Somo-Moyou, Philip Gah Fon, Ernest Tambo, Jun-Hu Chen and Zhou Xiao-Nong

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2021

Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs), have been reported to be effective against multidrugresistant Plasmodium falciparum. There are controversies in the choice of the type of ACTs to be used at hospitals settings and health centers. This is mostly determined by the cost and less side effects reported for each drug leading to an over prescription and consumption of some ACTs compared to others and consequently to drug resistance. This situation highlight the importance for constant mon...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510241

Post-Artesunate Delayed Hemolysis after Treatment of Malaria with Intravenous Artesunate: A Case Study

Abigail Foster

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: December 24, 2021

Delayed hemolysis is an uncommon reaction to intravenous artesunate for the treatment of severe malaria. We report a case of a patient who developed severe malaria after initial inadequate treatment, thus requiring IV artesunate therapy. Delayed hemolytic anemia then occurred and was monitored for weeks after completion of treatment. Malaria is a vector-borne infectious parasite that is transmitted through mosquitoes. It is a very prevalent disease globally, usually in areas of the world that ar...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510240

Effects of Race on the Outcome of COVID-19 in Hospitalized Patients

Getahun Abate, Aniruddh Kapoor, Edward Charbek, Bryan Beck, Qian Wang, Grace C Wang, Mackenzie Steck, Jason Zoglman, Robin R Chamberland, Sharon Frey, Daniel F Hoft and Timothy L Wiemken

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 24, 2021

Recent reports indicate that African Americans have higher mortality rates from SARSCoV- 2 coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) compared to Caucasians, with more marked differences in the Midwest region of the US. This study was performed to study differences in COVID-19 related mortality and hospital length of stay (LOS) between African Americans and Caucasians in Midwest setting, and identify factors associated with mortality and LOS. Data were collected from the electronic health records (EHR) ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510239

An Accuracy-Based Approach to the Microbiologic Diagnosis of Pulmonary Infection: Part II

John Ferguson, MD, MPH, Cyprien Jungels, DO and Michael Gailey, DO

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 16, 2021

Similar to that of bacterial infection, the performance of diagnostic tests for endemic fungal pneumonia and opportunistic fungal pneumonia are uncertain. We undertook a literature search to assess the accuracy of diagnostic tests for pneumonia, identified through a search of MEDLINE-indexed journals. Sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests for pneumonia were calculated with respect to various reference standards. A combination of diagnostic testing is adequate to rule out most endemic f...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510238

Impact of Adding Remdesivir to Tocilizumab in Hospitalized Patients with Coronavirus Disease

Chelsea A Schneider, PharmD, Jenny Martinez, PharmD, Kathleen Jodoin, PharmD and William R Wolowich, PharmD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 25, 2021

Several treatments have been utilized in the management of COVID-19 and only remdesivir is FDA-approved at this time. Tocilizumab is an interleukin-6 antagonist that has controversial data regarding its benefits in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Remdesivir in addition to tocilizumab has not shown any additive benefit to date; however, randomized controlled trials are in process. The objective of this study was to assess the role of tocilizumab with or without remdesivir in reducing mortality an...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510237

Attaining the Balance between Wild Poliovirus Eradication and Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Control

Emmanuel Ebuka Elebesunu and Confidence Nmesoma Ubani

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: November 11, 2021

Poliomyelitis is one of the leading causes of paralysis among children under five years of age, and has been a major public health threat until recent times when high success rates were attained in poliovirus elimination through massive vaccination campaigns in various regions worldwide. In the course of vaccination, a new trend of vaccine-derived poliovirus occurred, due to genetic reversions in the live attenuated oral polio vaccine that resulted in the emergence of virulent forms. To tackle t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510236

An Unusual Presentation of Disseminated Tuberculosis in South-West Nigeria: A Case Report

Martins Ehizode Emuze, Arinola Esan, Oladotun Olalusi, Omolade O Adegoke, Temitope E Ogunsanya, Chima Akunwata and John Akulue

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 11, 2021

Disseminated tuberculosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing nations. It could be a diagnostic challenge because of the nonspecific manifestations and sometimes atypical laboratory and radiologic findings. It results from haematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 2 or more noncontiguous sites. Clinical features may include fever, weight loss, anorexia, anemia, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and most times, patients have elevated inflammatory markers like er...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510235

Knowledge of COVID-19 and Compliance with the Use of Facemask among Undergraduate Students in a University in South-South Nigeria

Benjamin O Osaro, Aloni Alali and Ngozi V Ben-Osaro

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 11, 2021

The wearing of facemask in public places has been adopted as source control measure in the prevention and control of Covid-19 worldwide. In Nigeria, its use in public places has been made compulsory and defaulters are liable to sanctions. However, compliance still remains poor especially among youths, hence the need to assess knowledge of Covid-19 and compliance with the use of face mask among University students. This is a cross-sectional study among 400 undergraduates of Rivers State Universit...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510234

The Placental Buffer Effect and the Pathophysiology of COVID-19: Possibilities for a Guide Aimed at Pregnant and Postpartum Women Considering Praxis: Theory, Clinical and Laboratory Observation

Luiz Gonzaga Francisco de Assis Barros D’Elia Zanella, MD iD and Miriane Marques Borges, MD

Article Type: Review/Hypothesis | First Published: November 05, 2021

SARS-CoV-2 causes placental changes that can lead to embryonic/foetal death. However, the pregnant woman who in other diseases is considered (e.g., H1N1) a risk group for the development of severe forms of the disease, in COVID-19 rarely evolves with severity, except when childbirth occurs, and the woman loses the bond with the placenta. The answer for the pregnant woman is in the immunosuppression promoted by the placenta, in the metabolism of tryptophan and phenylalanine (Try) and functions of...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510233

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Ivermectin Monotherapy versus Hydroxychloroquine, Ivermectin, and Azithromycin Combination Therapy in COVID- 19 Patients in Nigeria

Babalola OE, Ndanusa YA, Ajayi AA, Ogedengbe JO, Thairu Y and Omede O

Article Type: Randomised Drug Trial | First Published: October 31, 2021

The efficacy of Ivermectin (IVM) against SARS-CoV-2 has been demonstrated in vitro, while several clinical studies suggest that it is efficacious and safe in reducing morbidity and mortality. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ, Quinoric®), IVM and Azithromycin(AZM, Zithromax®) (HIA therapy) is being used in several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) where more expensive medications such as Remdesivir are out of reach. In this study, we set out to compare the efficacy of IVM monotherapy with HIA comb...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510232

Sex-Specific Differences in the Short-Term Prevalence Trends of HIV and HBV among Undergraduate Nigerians: Implications for Policy

Henry E Aloh, Sharon O Azubuike-Osu, Cletius Nwabuogu, Miriam Nwankwo and Chukwunonso ECC Ejike

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 30, 2021

The prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infections and their co-infection are rarely reported among undergraduate Nigerians. This study sought to provide data in the said direction and discuss policy imperatives. A population of 4,876 undergraduate students of the Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu-Alike (AEFUNAI), Nigeria (52.7% females; mean age: 20 ± 2 yrs, females; 20 ± 3 yrs, males) was studied. Standard procedures were used for collection and ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510231

Predictors of Pulmonary Cavitation among Tuberculosis Patients

Oluwafemi O Balogun, Adetayo Fawole, Etiosa Osemwinyen and Busola Balogun

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 30, 2021

Globally, Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the top ten causes of mortality. Furthermore, the incidence and prevalence of the disease spectrum remain high in lowand some middle-income countries. Due to the associated high morbidity and mortality, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared it a public health emergency. Furthermore, pulmonary cavitation, classified epidemiologically and clinically as the hallmark of TB, has been associated with increased bacillary burden, high infection transmiss...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510230

An Accuracy-Based Approach to the Microbiologic Diagnosis of Pulmonary Infection

John Ferguson, MD, MPH, Cyprien Jungels, DO and Michael Gailey, DO

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 22, 2021

Over six million cases of pneumonia are diagnosed annually in the United States. Clinicians commonly experience uncertainty regarding the accuracy of laboratory tests as these values are not well-published or easily accessible. Performance data of diagnostic tests are needed to assist clinicians in procuring a microbiologic diagnosis. We undertook a literature search to assess the accuracy of diagnostic tests for pneumonia, identified through a search of MEDLINE-indexed journals. Sensitivity and...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510228

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of COVID-19 Prevention among Adults 18 Years and Above in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana

Mukasa Kabiri, MPH, Augustine Baffoe, MPH, Samuel Adusi Poku, MPH, Emmanuel Kwaku Ofori, MSc, Kwabena Opoku Adusei, MD and Paapa Puplampu, MD

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: September 24, 2021

Novel coronavirus disease is a very infectious respiratory infection transmitted from person-to-person and manifest commonly with fever, dry cough, difficulty breathing, fatigue, myalgia and dyspnea. The World Health Organization (WHO) used the term 2019 novel coronavirus to refer to a coronavirus that affected the lower respiratory tract of patients with pneumonia in Wuhan, China on 29 December 2019. Persons with comorbidities and the aged are most vulnerable to severe disease and accounted for...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510226

Alveolar Hemorrhage and (ANCA) C Vasculitis as a Presentation of COVID-19

Mohamed Habeb and Iscandrani A

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 06, 2021

45-year-old Saudi lady with no history of chronic medical problems, non-smoker, no history of any drug intake, married with 3 off springs, presented to our ED with massive hemoptysis with severe shortness of breath. On arrival: Patient was conscious, oriented & pale, Hypoxic on Oxygen via face mask 15 L/min, No clubbing, No L.L. edema, No palpable L.Ns. Chest: B/L inspiratory fine crepitation. CXR: B/L mid & lower zone consolidations sparing the apices & the angles. Lab investigations done revea...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510225

Epidemiological and Metabolic Profile of Women Living With HIV/AIDS in Campos Gerais: 2008-2017

Carolina Mulinett Pereira, Erildo Vicente Muller and Camilla Marinelli Martins

Article Type: Retrospective Cohort | First Published: August 30, 2021

The aim of this study was to characterize the sociodemographic profile and changes in the metabolic profile of women living with HIV/AIDS. A cross-sectional study of a retrospective cohort was conducted in women with HIV/AIDS treated at the Specialized Care Service (SCS) in Ponta Grossa, Paraná. Between January/2008 and December/2017, data from 111 women were included. The variables of interest in the study were: Sociodemographic, such as gender, age at the date of diagnosis, color, education, ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510224

Sexual Behaviors and HIV Status: A Population-Based Study among Youths and Adults in Tanzania

Adeleye Ayinde Adaralegbe, MD, Ph.D, Oluwatomi Adeoti, MD, MPH, Stephanie C Ogbonda, MD, Obiageri E Egeolu, MBBS and Nnenna Ann Ukoha, MBBS

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: August 25, 2021

HIV remains a global epidemic in the world, especially in African countries, despite various efforts to reduce the spread of this disease. Eastern Africa nations, specifically Tanzania, are one of the top ten HIV infected countries with approximately 80% of its population living with HIV. Heterosexual intercourse remains the most common method of HIV transmission in these countries, and efforts that improve responsible sexual intercourse would help limit the spread of the virus. We used the publ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510223

Effect of COVID-19 Pandemic on Blood Transfusion in Nigeria: Efforts and Challenges

Innocent Tidisha Lawrence, Faiva Edward, Matthew Michael Ijarafu, Sanusi Muhammad Salisu, Adeniyi Dada, Suleiman Muhammad Gidado, Gregory Lawrence Ijafu, Dauda Ayuba and Don Eliseo Lucero-Prisno

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: August 06, 2021

The deadly Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), caused the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which resulted in major disruption in the global health care system at all levels. Nigeria with an increasing population and worsened health indices has been affected massively in every sphere of life including health and economy. This research, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on blood transfusion in Nigeria, has been able to look at the status of blood transfusion in Nigeria pre COVID-...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510222

NEUROCOV/PSYCCOV: Neuropsychiatric Phenomena in COVID-19 - Exposing Their Hidden Essence and Warning against Iatrogenesis

Luiz Gonzaga Francisco de Assis Barros D’Elia Zanella, MD

Article Type: Hypotheses/Review | First Published: August 06, 2021

This article is a small review with a hypothesis to be considered, focusing on neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) in COVID-19 patients. Almost 2 years passed by of dealing with COVID-19 patients it is undeniable how patients suffer from continuous pain and how it lasts a long time to return to the previous neurologic status they had before infection; they have been admitted at the hospital with psychiatric symptoms or neurological symptoms without a historical morbid past these before, and soon th...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510221

Prognostic Factors for Viral Hepatitis B in Oran: Prediction with Cox Model

Lakhdar Zemour, Amina Belghitri, Nassima Amani, Lynda Mallem and Nori Midoun

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 04, 2021

Viral hepatitis B is a major public health problem worldwide. Their magnitude stems from their frequency and their short- and long-term health impact due to their evolutionary potential and therefore their complications. The objective of our work is to establish the epidemiological profile of viral hepatitis B in western Algeria and to identify the main prognostic factors associated with the progression of liver fibrosis. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in Western Algeria. I...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510220

Retrospective Evaluation of Post-Hip Arthroplasty and Knee Infections: Frequency, Associated Risk Factors and Developments

Maria Letícia Braga, Juliana Fulgêncio Henriques, Marco Antônio Percope de Almeida, Soraya de Almeida Sanches, Roberta Maia de Castro Romanelli, Paulo Henrique Mourão and Wanessa Trindade Clemente

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 28, 2021

The related infection to the orthopedic prosthesis implant is the main cause of faults or failures associated with arthroplasties and include aseptic loosening, dislocation, prosthesis or bone fracture. These infections are difficult to eradicate and persist until the removal of the foreign body. The objective of this work is to make a descriptive analysis of cases of primary arthroplasty of the hip and knee and the possible risk factors associated with surgical site infection (SSI). This is a c...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510219

Antibody Development through SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Vaccination in India

Arjun Ghosh, Kaushik Saha, Amal Das, Suchandan Bhattacharjee, Arijit Pani, Gostha Gopal Shee, Piyali Ray, Dipak Singh, Soumika Biswas, Somnath Murmu, Subhasish Dutta, Anuleena Dasgupta, Anushka Ghosh, Suborno Jati, Dhrubajyoti Chattopadhyay, Malini Sen and Gourisankar Ghosh

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 19, 2021

In this study, we examined the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the dose-dependent efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine Covishield (Oxford/AstraZeneca). During the period between December 2020 and February 2021, we tested the level of natural infection among individuals by estimating the reactivity of their sera towards SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleoprotein (N) proteins. The seropositivity of the population in different communities ranged from 17% to 51%, depending on their connectivity to the ne...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510218

Lessons from the Past: Methodological Issues Arising from Comparison of the Disease Burden of the Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic 2009-10 and Seasonal Influenza 2010-2019 in the United States

James A Koziol, Ph.D. and Jan E Schnitzer, M.D.

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: July 19, 2021

Annual influenza outbreaks constitute a major public health concern, both in the United States and worldwide. Comparisons of the health burdens of outbreaks might lead to the identification of specific at-risk populations, for whom public health resources should be marshaled appropriately and equitably. We examined the disease burden of the 2009-10 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic relating to illnesses, medical visits, hospitalizations, and mortality, compared to influenza seasons 2010 to 2019, in th...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510217

Emerging Strain (H5N8) of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus: An Impending Pandemic Threat

Yusuf Amuda Tajudeen, Nimat Toyosi Ajide-Bamigboye and Iyiola Olatunji Oladunjoye

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: July 19, 2021

The rapid evolution and spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza HPAI A(H5N1) viruses is a global threat not only to poultry farming and wildlife conservation but also to the public health communities as a result of the animalhuman (zoonosis) cases of its genetic reassortant (H5N8) recently detected in seven poultry workers in Russia. However, considering the increased fatalities in poultry and wild birds, and the potential of zoonosis in escalating to a deadly pandemic, there is a need f...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510216

COVID-19: Experience of the Epidemic Treatment Center in Ziguinchor, Southern Region of Senegal

Kalilou Diallo, Mame Aissé Thioubou, Bruce Shinga Wembulua, Yaya Kane, Mame Ngoné Coly, Abdou Badiane, Simon Joel Manga, Denis Barboza, Habib Sarr, Mamadou Cherif Aidara, Ansoumana Diatta and Noel Magloire Manga

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 15, 2021

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) started in December 2019 in China and has become few months later, a public health emergency of international concern, then became a pandemic. In Senegal, the first cases were declared in March 2020. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the disease in Ziguinchor, southern region of Senegal and to identify the factors associated with the death of the cases. Descriptive and analytical cross-sectional s...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510215

The Impact of Age, Sex, and Race on the Association of Risk Factors and Mortality in COVID-19 Patients

Sadie Solomon, BS, Sarah Hochman, MD, Rahayma Sheikh, BA, Jennifer Lighter, MD, Michael Phillips, MD and Anna Stachel, PhD, MPH

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 30, 2021

Several comorbidities and demographic factors are associated with mortality in Covid-19 patients. However, limited analysis exists of interactions between comorbidities and demographics for Covid-19 outcomes. Retrospective analysis of adult patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from March 3rd - May 31st 2020 at NYU Langone Health. Patients selected had visited emergency departments, outpatient testing clinics, or were discharged from an inpatient location as of May 31st 2020. We assessed t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510214

Two Cases of Siblings with Variation in Response to Standard Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Kenyatta National Hospital

Allan Kayiza, Wakaba Stephanie, Anjumanara Omar and Ezekiel M Wafula

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: June 21, 2021

Visceral leishmaniasis is caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania, transmitted by sandflies of the genus Phlebotomus. It is one of the neglected tropical infectious diseases, though it has been endemic in many countries around the world. High morbidity and mortality have been reported in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Kenya, attributed to misdiagnosis, late diagnosis, or medication lack. The cases we present, highlight the disease's characteristics and the variable individual to th...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510213

Management Outcome of Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection in Nigeria: A Case Series

Vivian Gga Kwaghe, Ayi Vandi Kwaghe, Zaiyad Garba Habib and Bissallah Ahmed Ekele

Article Type: Case Series | First Published: June 16, 2021

Studies indicate that people with underlying comorbidities and the elderly are susceptible to increased risk of developing severe disease when infected with SARSCoV- 2. This study aims to describe the clinical presentation and treatment outcome of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLWHIV) who had Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a retrospective study of COVID-19 patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) co-infection admitted at the University of Abuja Teach...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510212

Anthropocene- An Era with Evil Six Threats Changing the Fate of Biodiversity: Emerging and Re-emerging Aboviruses Calls for Holistic Approach

Yusuf Amuda Tajudeen

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 12, 2021

The Anthropocene era is characterized by the everincreasing anthropogenic activities which serve as a driver of the evil six threats (climate change, overexploitation of earth natural resources, land-use change, invasive alien species, pollution, and nutrient loading) to biodiversity, these, in turn, contributes to the alarming emergence and re-emergence of arboviral diseases. The major concern of this on human population is the increased morbidity and mortality rate, and as evidently reported b...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510211

Risk Factors for Hospital-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections in Patients with Acute Stroke

Admir M Šabanović, MD, Jankovic M Slobodan, MD, DSc, MSc, Prim and Marina Kostić, MD, Ph.D

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 07, 2021

Pаtients with acute stroke, due to the specific nature of the disease and treatment, represent a population of patients with an increased risk of hospital-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for hospital-acquired UTI in patients with acute stroke. A retrospective case-control study has been conducted with 128 participants, 64 cases (patients with acute stroke and hospital-acquired UTI), and 64 controls (patients with acute stroke and withou...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510210

COVID-19 with Sporotrichosis (aka Sporothrix schenckii) and Fusobacterium Bloodstream Infections (BSI)

Stephen Catalya, MD, Cyrus Shariat, MD and Michael C Cloud, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 31, 2021

We present a case of COVID-19 complicated by sporotrichosis and fusobacterium blood stream infections - no known prior cases of sporotrichosis fungemia nor polymicrobial fusobacterium bloodstream infections in COVID-19 patients. Severe COVID-19, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM), and prolonged corticosteroid use contributed to immune dysregulation, increasing the patient’s vulnerability to blood stream infection. This highlights the importance of vigilance regarding risks and complications o...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510209

Mathematical Modeling of the Infectious Diseases: Key Concepts and Applications

Anderson Luiz Pena da Costa, Marcelo Amanajas Pires, Rafael Lima Resque and Sheylla Susan Moreira da Silva de Almeida

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 31, 2021

The transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is susceptible to changes governed by several factors, whose recognition is critical for the rational development of strategies for prevention and control, as well as for developing health policies. In this context, mathematical modeling can provide useful insights concerning transmission patterns and detection of parameters to mitigate disease in the population. Infectious diseases are the result of a disharmonious ecological interaction between ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510208

A Case Report of COVID-19 Fatality in a Nigerian Child without Apparent Comorbidity

Festus Dele Akeredolu, MBBS,FMCPaed, Sunday Ochapa Onazi, BM,BCh, FWACP(paed), Usman Muhammad Waziri, MBBS,FMCPaed, Alfred Tume, MBBS,FWCS and Kelechi Obi, MBBS

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 17, 2021

As community transmission of COVID 19 peaks in our environment, more children are presenting with moderate to severe disease, as against the earlier notion of asymptomatic to mild disease severity in children. Mortality from COVID-19 infection in children with no apparent comorbidity is still rare. Our aim is to describe a fatal case of COVID-19 in a Nigerian girl with no background medical conditions. The 8-year-old girl presented with fever, cough and difficulty with breathing. She was febrile...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510207

Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection Following Ventriculoperitoneal Shunting

Fabiana Guerra Pimenta, Roberta Maia de Castro Romanelli, Paulo Henrique Orlandi Mourão, Maria Letícia Barbosa Braga, Soraya Rodrigues de Almeida Sanches, Alexandre Varella Giannetti and Wanessa Trindade Clemente

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 17, 2021

Ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS) is a neurosurgical procedure used to treat hydrocephalus. However, after this procedure, the surgical site infection rates and associated risk factors remain unclear. Most studies do not apply clear criteria for the definition of surgical site infection (SSI), hindering its clinical applicability. We conducted a retrospective, case-control study to evaluate the risk factors for SSI after VPS. The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) criteria were used to ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510206

Seropositive Prevalence of Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in Rural Harnett County, North Carolina

Anita Subramanian, MD, Gualberto B Morco VI OMS IV, Piper Olmsted DO, Qinfeng (Sarah) Liu, PhD and Asif Zia MD, MPH, FACP

Article Type: Epidemiological Survey | First Published: May 03, 2021

Reported infections of SARS-CoV-2 likely underestimate the prevalence of infection in affected communities. Seroprevalence studies allow us to understand how the virus is spreading through this local community and help us to identify people with previous infections known or unknown. This study is an epidemiologic survey to evaluate seroprevalence data in a rural community. Participants were tested between September 2020 to March 2021 using a Biohit SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG quick test. The positive fin...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510204

Clinical Efficacy of Ceftaroline Fosamil in Patients with Severe Pneumonia in Intensive Care Unit

María José Pérez-Pedrero Sánchez-Belmonte, Marcelino Sánchez Casado, Roman Hervey Piza Pinilla, Marta Fernández Arevalo and Maria José Sánchez Carretero

Article Type: Clinical Study | First Published: April 24, 2021

Severe community acquired pneumonia is entity with high mortality, it needs effective and early antibiotic therapy, and often the patients need admission in intensive care unit to receive respiratory support. Appearance of new antibiotics have been expanding the therapeutic efficacy, that approves of Ceftaroline fosamil to treat community acquired pneumonia have allowed to use it as a part of usual therapeutic arsenal and it have shown an earlier clinic response and higher cure rate. The goal of...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510203

Factors Associated with Severe COVID-19 in an Epidemic Treatment Center at Dakar

Moustapha Diop, Papa Samba Ba, Moustapha Lo, Ndong Essomba, Betty Fall, Mathilde Ndèye Sarr, Mouhamadou Ndiaye, Bruce Wembulua, Fatou Kiné Mbaye Soumah, Ndèye Aissatou Lakhe, Becaye Fall, Abdourahmane Niang, Khardiata Diallo Mbaye, Louise Fortes Degenonvo, Ousmane Faye, Ndongo Dia, Abdou Rajack Ndiaye, Moussa Seydi, Amadou Alpha Sall and Mame Thierno Dieng

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 23, 2021

Coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global public health issue due to a new coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-Cov-2). It is a very contagious infectious disease with often benign symptoms. However, some patients present with severe clinical signs and are more at risk to die. The aim of this study was to assess the factors associated with severe COVID-19 in an Epidemic Treatment Center (ETC) at Dakar, Senegal. We conducted a prospective de...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510205

COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy: Maximising the Extending Roles of Community Pharmacists in Nigeria in Driving Behavioural Changes in Public Health Interventions

Oladapo Rasaq Kayode, Oyetola Afeez Babatunde, Olajide Adekunle, Monisola Igbalajobi and Adebayo Kudirat Abiodun

Article Type: Letter to the Editor | First Published: April 24, 2021

The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel virus, SARS-COV-2, has considerably increased awareness and discussions among the general populace - and scientists - regarding the important roles of vaccines. Despite the desperate need for interventions from vaccines, there is still considerable apathy and hesitancy around the acceptance and use of the available, approved vaccines in many places in Africa and Nigeria, especially. Community pharmacists are the most accessible and ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510202

Ivermectin and COVID-19 in Care Home: Case Report

Pierre Loué and Christine Fardeau

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: April 17, 2021

COVID-19 appeared at the end of December 2019 in China in the city of Wuhan before spreading around the world in just a few months. At the end of May 2020, among 77 000 people living in care home in Paris area, 16 940 (22 %) were estimated positive to Covid19 and 5 600 (33 % among positive ones) had a Covid19 related death. When lockdown started on March 15, 2020, old age and comorbidity features including heart failure, diabetes, respiratory failure, obesity, were known to be a high-risk of sev...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510201

Possible Role of Biomedical Polymers in COVID-19 Journey: A Short Review

Akram Jassim Jawad

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 09, 2021

In recent months, many scientists and engineers have tried to minimize and control coronavirus spreading by different techniques. These techniques usually focused on cutting the circlet of Covid-19 infection by both direct and non-direct ways. As a polymer composites widely used in everyday products, a short review of Polymer Nano-Composites (PNCs) for antiviral activity against Covid-19 has been achieved. Firstly, virus’s structure, especially Covid-19 has been discussed. Then, different PNCs...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510197

A Model for Coronavirus Pandemic

Pirooz Mohazzabi, Gabrielle Richardson and Gwendolyn Richardson

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 20, 2021

A simple model is developed for spread of a pandemic disease. The model is based on simple, uninhibited population growth except that the rate of infection is assumed to be proportional to the existing infected population. The model is in agreement with the CDC data on COVID-19 for the United States in 2020. Ever since humans have walked on the face of Earth, they have been afflicted by various diseases, some of which have wiped out large fractions of their population. Infectious diseases such a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510196

A Stochastic Model with Jumps for the COVID-19 Epidemic in the Greater Abidjan Region during Public Health Measures

Mohamed Coulibaly and Modeste N’zi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 20, 2021

Our goal in this paper is to adapt to the context of the Greater Abidjan Region (Côte d'Ivoire) an existing model reflecting the evolution of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan (China). This model is a deterministic compartmental model which is translated by a system of ordinary differential equations. We are reinvesting this model to obtain the parameters of the epidemic in the great Abidjan. We study some mathematical aspects of this deterministic model. Using data from the evolution of the COVID...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510184

A Human-Pathogen Model for COVID-19 Outbreak: Flattening Epidemic Curve in Kenya

Viona Ojiambo, Mark Kimathi, Samuel Mwalili, Duncan Kioi Gathungu and Rachel Mbogo

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2020

This work introduces a deterministic model of COVID-19 spread aimed at analyzing non-pharmaceutical interventions in Kenya. The model accounts for symptomatic, asymptomatic and environmental transmission. Using the SEIR (Susceptible-Exposed- Infected-Recovered) compartmental model with additional component of the pathogen, the dynamics of COVID-19 outbreak is simulated while focussing on the impact of different control measures in the reduction of the basic reproduction number. The resulting sys...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510200

Clinical and Laboratory Profile of Dengue Fever in Elderly Patients Admitted in a Tertiary Hospital from 2013 to 2018

Mary Rose Villalon, MD, FPCP, Miguel Ramos, Jr. MD PhD, FPCP, FPCGM and James Dionisio Tiu, MD, FPCP, FPSMID

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 31, 2021

Philippines is among the top southeast Asian country that is endemic to Dengue Fever based on DOH reported cases - from a reported 152,224 in 2017 to an increase in 216,190 in 2018. Most studies in the country are derived from the pediatric and/or young adult population hence, there is a dearth of data describing our elderly patient with dengue. This is a retrospective observational study of elderly individuals diagnosed with Dengue Fever admitted at St. Luke’s Medical Center, E. Rodriguez, Qu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510199

Unholy Interlocking of Government, Corporate, and Medical Dogma Sacrifices Lives - The Semmelweis Saga Resurrected

Robert Jay Rowen, MD

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: March 27, 2021

Some two centuries ago, Ignaz Semmelweis observed that hand washing with a chlorinated lime solution (an oxidizing agent) would curb infection mortality related to the maternity ward. He was scorned and castigated by his peers for daring to suggest hand washing between dissecting cadavers and delivering babies. Medicine should have learned from this debacle. Has it? Today we face unprecedented crises in infectious diseases. Pharmaceutical antibiotic drugs that ushered in the medical era are bein...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510198

Guinea Worm Infection of Human Cases in Gog District of Gambella, South West Ethiopia: 2020 - A Case Report and Literature Review

Abreha Addis Gesese and Endale Zenebe Behire

Article Type: Case Report and Literature Review | First Published: March 27, 2021

Dracunculiasis or Guinea worm disease (GWD) was reported consistently as low level transmission, including few infections in animals in Southwest Ethiopia. Despite the aggressive implementation of eradication efforts in Ethiopia, there exist signs of re-emergence. Therefore, this study was aimed to present six GWD of human suspected cases in Gog District of Anywak Zone, Gambella Region, Southwest Ethiopia, 2020. This study presented 6 suspected human GWD cases with emerging worms among 4 female ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510194

Epidemiologic Survey of HBV, HCV and HIV Infections in a Pregnant Women Population in Central Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study

Victor B Oti, Isa H Mohammed, Yahaya Ibrahim, Chindo Ibrahim, Iboro Orok, Yakubu Y Saje, Attah A Ambrose and Muriana Olotu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 27, 2021

Parallel and overlapping of HBV, HCV and HIV infections in pregnant women is a major public health problem. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the parallel and overlapping infections of HBV, HCV and HIV among pregnant women population in Keffi, Central Nigeria between June through August 2019. Four hundred (400) women blood specimens were collected from major Hospitals in Keffi for the study after informed consent and ethical approval were retrieved and a structured questionnaire was ad...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510193

Identification and Comparison of Microbial Load of Different Water Products Available in Ekiti State

Akinseye Janet Funmilayo, Amadi Oyinyechi, Oluboyo Bernard Oluwapelumi, Akele Richard Yomi and Ayuba Sunday Buru

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 20, 2021

The quest for a safe drinking water free from any form of contamination cannot be overemphasized. People around the world do not have safe drinking water and that has resulted into myriad of water borne diseases. A total of twenty-two (22) samples were collected from twelve (12) different brand and subjected to microbiological analysis. From the results obtained, pH of the analyzed samples had ranges from 6.5 to 7.5, which fall within the normal standard range of 6.5 to 8.5. The Fecal coliform c...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510195

The COVID-19 Burden or Tryptophan Syndrome: Autoimmunity, Immunoparalysis and Tolerance in a Tumorigenic Environment

Luiz Gonzaga Francisco de Assis Barros D’Elia Zanella and Luciana de Lima Galvão

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 27, 2021

SARS-CoV-2, a new virus, which has been causing the catastrophic pandemic in the world in 2020, triggers numerous physiologic changes in humans, with potentially fatal evolution due to COVID-19. COVID-19 can trigger immunoparalysis with deep and silent immunosuppression and a state of tolerance that may elicit opportunities for neoplastic transformation or latent infectious diseases. In addition, all neurologic or psychiatric symptoms have been observed - as clinically present in usual diseases,...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510192

Effect of Hydroxychloroquine or Chloroquine and Azithromycin on COVID-19 Patients' Recovery and Mortality: Evidence from a Hospital Based Retrospective Cohort Study Conducted in Burkina Faso

Adama Baguiya, MD, Msc, Armel Poda, MD, Kadari Cissé, MD, Msc, Apoline K Sondo, MD, Boukary Ouedraogo, MD, PhD, Abdoul Risgou Ouedraogo, MD, Alfred B Tiono, MD, PhD, Pierre Kaboré, MD, Brice W Bicaba, MD, Msc, Jacques Zoungrana, MD, Adama Sourabié, MD, Souleymane Fofana, MD, Flavien Kaboré, MD, Adama Sanou, MD and Séni Kouanda, MD, PhD

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: February 15, 2021

Many countries have adopted hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) or chloroquine (CQ) and azithromycin (AZ) for the treatment of COVID-19 patients at the beginning of the pandemic and are still using them. The objective of this study was to measure the efficacy of CQ or HCQ and combined with AZ on patients' survival and recovery in Burkina Faso, West Africa. We conducted a hospital-based retrospective cohort study using routine data from all the hospitals involved in the COVID-19 response in Burkina Faso. Al...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510191

Towards 90-90-90 Target: COVID-19 and HIV Response in Africa

Yusuff Adebayo Adebisi, Adrian Rabe, Aniekan Ekpenyong, Melody Okereke, Ouma Atieno Sarah, Oladunni Abimbola Amos, Alumuku Iordepuun Micheal, Amusile Olayemi, Damilola Quazeem Olaoye, Bamisaiye Adeola, Abdulhafeez Ayodele Mustapha and Don Eliseo Lucero- Prisno III

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: February 11, 2021

As cases of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continue to rise, so are the concerns of the effects this pandemic could have on people living with HIV. In response to the pandemic, measures have been put in place by African governments to limit the spread of the virus. We examine the impact of these measures on ensuring progress towards the HIV advocacy of “90-90-90” by 2020, i.e., 90% of all people living with HIV will know their status, 90% of people diagnosed will receive sustained ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510190

COVID-19 Responses: Unintended and Undiscussed Potential Consequences

Joel B Epstein, DMD, MSD, Sean Mark, PhD and Richard G Mathias, MD, PhD

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: January 30, 2021

With the focus upon “flattening the curve”, ongoing non-COVID-19 medical care needs have been displaced and care delayed. These have included oncology care and cardiac care, and research interruption and delay as examples of unintended consequences of the COVID-19 response, the implications of which will be realized in upcoming years. Reduction in health care productivity due to infection control recommendations that increase time of preparation and increase time of providers and staff and t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510189

Detection of Measles IgM and Malaria Parasite among Febrile Children in Zaria, Nigeria

Maryam Aminu, Yakubu Irimiya Parason, Umar Abdullahi, Mohammed Ibrahim Tahir, Fatai Akindele Olaniyan and Mohammed Aminu Usman

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 30, 2021

Measles and malaria are highly infectious diseases worldwide and are of major public health concern. Although measles is a leading cause of death of young children in many developing countries, it is vaccine preventable. This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of measles IgM as well as the prevalence of malaria parasite among febrile children attending Ahmadu Bello University Medical Center, Samaru Zaria, Nigeria. A total of 80 blood samples purposively and randomly collected ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510188

Latent Tuberculosis Treatment in People Living with HIV/ AIDS in Algeria, Time to Act: A Review

Ouyahia Amel, Rais Mounira, PhD, Gasmi Abdelkader, PhD, Kouicem Aya Tinhinane, Kouicem Mohamed Safir and Lacheheb Abdelmadjid

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: January 28, 2021

In 2017, World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 920000 of People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) developed tuberculosis disease worldwide, which is the number one infectious killer of PLWHA. To the end of 2019 there are an estimated 13000 PLWHA in Algeria, the estimated rate of the killing couple HIV-tuberculosis in 2018 was 14.7% (276 cases). We aimed in this review article to report the current situation of management of LTBI in Algeria, highlight the net gain of such treatment in PLWHA a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510187

Overview of the Rationale for L-Glutamine Treatment in Moderate-Severe COVID-19 Infection

Adebola Okunola E Obayan, MD, PhD (Surgery), FRCSC

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 13, 2021

This overview focuses on how to overcome the treatment challenges posed by COVID-19 infection and reduce mortality with antioxidant therapy. The rationale for this treatment approach is explored by addressing the following objectives. COVID-19 is the viral pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (WHO). SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped positive- sense virus in the RNA beta Coronavirus family. Identifying...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510186

Risk Factors, Seroprevalence and Infectivity of Hepatitis B Virus amongst Children Resident in Orphanages in a Developing Country

Chioma Paulina Ogbonna, MBBS, FMCPaed, Christian Chukwukere Ogoke, MBBS, FWACP, Anthony Nnaemeka Ikefuna, MBBS, FMCPaed, FRCP, Tochukwu Chukwukadibia Ezeofor, MBBS, FMC, FMCpaed, Emeka Charles Nwolisa, MBBS, FWACP, FRCP, Franklin Chime Emerenini, MBBch, FMCpaed, and Christopher Bismarck Eke MBBS, FWACP

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 13, 2021

Hepatitis B infection (HBV) remains a significant clinical and public health problem and is hyperendemic in Nigeria. In highly endemic regions, infections spread from mother to child, or by horizontal transmission, with the burden of infection being highest in under-fives. Nigeria has a large number of orphans and vulnerable children, with reports of high seroprevalence of HBV infection in orphanages. There is no such report from our locality, despite having a high number of orphans. Therefore, ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510185

Antibiotic De-escalation Practice in General Intensive Care Unit Penang General Hospital

Shiao Hui Lim, Chen Chuan Kuai and Chew Har Lim

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 11, 2021

De-escalation of empirical antibiotic therapy according to results of microbiological cultures will effectively target the causative pathogen, besides reducing broad-spectrum antibiotic exposure and minimizing the selection pressure on the development of resistant microorganisms. Primarily, the study aimed to assess the practice of broad-spectrum antibiotic de-escalation in General Intensive Care Unit (GICU). Secondary objectives were to describe the indication of broad-spectrum antibiotics use,...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510183

Battle against Two Pandemics New One (Covid-19) and Existing One (Tuberculosis)

Ch Pachouri, S Tripathi, S Shukla and A Pandey

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 31, 2020

Tuberculosis (TB) is a preventable and curable disease, and its control is a highly cost-effective health intervention. However, diagnostic delay and inadequate treatment contribute to the severity and mortality of the disease as well as the risk of transmission and development of drug resistance. Despite the fact that TB disproportionately impacts low- and middle-income countries, it does not spare any country in the world including those in the European Union/European Economic Area where more ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510182

Proximity based Metrics Assessment of Disproportionate Exposure of Air Travelers to Spread of Covid-19 Pandemic

Nwokedi Theophilus Chinonyerem, Hussaini Yusuf Kodo, Obe Ejii Samuel and Ahunanya Valentine

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 31, 2020

Following the gradual easing of the inter-regional travel ban and restrictions on domestic air travels associated with the corona virus pandemic by Government due to economic reasons, confirmed cases of the covid-19 infection across states seems to have shown continual increase and the transmission curve show increasing trend particularly in Nigeria. Awareness of travelers’ level of exposure to the spread of the covid-19 disease relative to the travel distances is a sure prerequisite to limit ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510181

Personal Protection Equipment Utilization and Hand Hygiene Practice during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Narrative Review

Azmeraw Bekele and Yimenu Yitayih

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: December 16, 2020

Personal protective equipment and instant hand hygiene found the most effective preventive measures during coronavirus disease-19 and their utilization should depend upon contact-droplet exposure. The aim of the review was to evaluate when, where, and how the personal protective equipment utilized and hand hygiene practiced during SARS-CoV-2 infection. The following databases were searched using keywords and related browsing terms: PubMed Central, Ovid Medline via PubMed, Cochrane database, WHO ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510180

Hybrid Autopsy Virology Laboratory Experimental Platform

Izak B Dimenstein, MD, PhD, HT (ASCP)

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: December 11, 2020

The SARS-CoV-2 aerosols’ transmission route is not still settled. Along with epidemiology data, there is an urgent necessity for reliable reproducible experimental methods for virus aerosolization studies. The autopsy table can form part of a hybrid autopsy virology laboratory as an investigative platform equipped with the necessary instruments for SARS-CoV-2 aerosolization studies. Wide open mucosa surfaces COVID-19 deceased can be a field for studying under experimental manipulations of air ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510179

Small Viral Particle Aerosol Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A and Measles: Dual Pandemics, Outbreaks and Public Health Protection with the Use of Face Shields and Face Coverings

Cameron Y S Lee, DMD, MD, PHD, MPH, MSEd

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 27, 2020

As the Covid-19 pandemic (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread globally, the influenza virus circulates in communities capable of causing significant morbidity and mortality. Further, measles outbreaks are common events as well and may trail right behind the coronavirus that causes Covid-19 and the influenza virus. Recent aerosol studies have now demonstrated that respiratory pathogens less than 5 micrometers are able to be transmitted from human-to-human capable of causing great morbidity and mortal...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510178

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C and Associated Risk Factors among HIV-1 Infected Patients in a High Risk Border Region of South West Cameroon

Adamu Ndongho Ndifontiayong, Innocent Mbulli Ali, Jerimiah Mbogwe Ndimumeh, Jean Baptiste Sokoudjou, Jules-Roger Kuiate and Christopher Bonglavnyuy Tume

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 27, 2020

Coinfection of HIV with human retroviruses such as hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) has been associated with adverse liver disease outcomes including reduced survival, cancer and antiretroviral induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C antibody (HCVAb) among HIV-infected individuals diagnosed within six months in South West Cameroon and identified risk factors of coinfection. We performed a systematic screenin...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510177

Tocilizumab Improves Survival in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19

Ivan Lozada Martinez, Daniela Torres Llinás, Maria Bolaño Romero and Luis Moscote Salazar

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: November 22, 2020

The pandemic caused by COVID-19 continues to be the main objective of hundreds of scientific societies and world organizations, to mitigate the impact it has generated on the human race, and to seek a solution definite eradication. Recent research on the pathophysiological process generated by this disease in humans has identified key molecular aspects for the creation of vaccines, or the specific use of some medicines that can control the inflammatory process produced at the multi-systemic leve...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510176

High Mutation Rate in SARS-CoV-2: Will It Hit Us the Same Way Forever?

Ivan Lozada Martinez, Daniela Torres Llinás, Maria Bolaño Romero and Luis Moscote Salazar

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: November 22, 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic that currently plagues the world has infected over 37,601,848 people, killed 1,077,799 over people, and daily infects around 300,000 people. Different genomic studies indicate that SARS-CoV-2 originated from the bat or the pangolin, however, these conclusions are not substantial and it remains a global priority to detail all the characteristics of this agent, looking to discover therapeutic targets, explain the pathophysiological process it produces in humans, and describe ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510175

Remdesivir Mortality Benefit in Mechanically Ventilated COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Review

Sydney Asselstine, MD, Kevin Ly, MD, Zeeshan Khan, MD and Nirav Shah, DO

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: November 18, 2020

COVID-19 has presented unprecedented challenges due to the sparse availability of information surrounding the novel virus; continuing to gather data on the disease is vital for preventing further devastation. Remdesivir has been introduced as a potential treatment for the viral disease. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of Remdesivir on mortality in critically ill, mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. This observational study analyzed outcomes of ventilated COVID-19 positi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510174

A Rare Etiology for Injection Related Gluteal Abscess

Arunpandiyan Veerpandiyan, MBBS, DNB, Balaji Subramanian Srinivasa Sekaran, MBBS, Haji Mohammed Rahamathullah, MD and Aravindhan Veerapandiyan, MD

Article Type: Letter to the Editor | First Published: November 18, 2020

Chromoblastomycosis is a rare, chronic, indolent, granulomatous fungal infection of skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by dematiaceous fungi. Chromoblastomycosis, though can be found throughout the world, is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions. Primary lesions appears as an erythematous papule or a warty growth that gradually enlarges to various forms and sizes. The infection most frequently affects lower extremities, especially feet and shins, but can rarely affect buttocks, tru...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510173

Self-Swab and Saliva Collection for the Diagnosis of Covid-19. What Do Patients Feel About Them?

Hwang SY, Tan SY, Tan PT and Siau C

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: November 07, 2020

SARS-CoV-2 is the virus being detected for tests for the illness COVID-19. The current gold standard for diagnosis of COVID-19 is a healthcare worker (HCW) performed nasopharyngeal (NP) swab. The IDSA (Infectious Diseases Society of America) suggests using nasopharyngeal, mid-turbinate, or nasal specimens rather than an oropharyngeal (or saliva) specimen because of limited data suggesting lower sensitivity with oropharyngeal specimens. However, subsequent studies have suggested that saliva speci...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510172

Infectious Diseases in Times of Conflict and War: The Loyal Companions

Isaac I, Malaeb M, Bou khalil A, Musharrafieh U and Bizri AR3

Article Type: Literature Review | First Published: November 04, 2020

The association between war, conflict, massive force displacement and infectious diseases has long been established. The influx of large numbers of syrian refugees to Lebanon burdened the country’s infrastructure on several levels, including the public health sector. The aim of this article is to evaluate the association between certain reportable infectious diseases, and the presence of Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Data, from non-governmental organizations and the Lebanese Ministry of Public H...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510171

Liver Abscess and Septic Pulmonary Dissemination by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Hispanic Male: A Case Report

Jorge Cardenas, Galit Balayla and Carlos I Bustamante

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 04, 2020

Klebsiella pneumoniae invasive syndrome (KPIS) is a life-threatening condition with rising incidence across the globe. It is characterized by a monobacterial primary pyogenic liver abscess with or without additional dissemination. Some of the possible metastatic complications include endophthalmitis, lung nodules, meningitis, and potentially inflammation of any organ. Despite the wide distribution of common K. pneumoniae, invasive syndrome is often overlooked due to low incidence of hypervirulen...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510170

Factors Associated with Not Being Tested for HIV among MSM Population in Bamako, Mali

Telly N, Sangho O, Ballo T, Maiga M, Lahuerta M, Padmaja P, Diawara F, Tounkara M, Traore B, Traoré S and Doumbia S

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 28, 2020

Men who have sex with men (MSM) are known to have a higher risk of being infected by HIV. Clinical and public health programs need to incorporate strategies to increase regular HIV testing among MSM in order to control and prevent new infections. A cross-sectional bio-behavioral survey among MSM in Bamako, Mali, was conducted using respondent- driven sampling to study factors associated with not being HIV tested in this vulnerable population. The study participants were ≥ 18-years-old and had ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510169

Probable Factors Contributing to the Fast Spread of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Ethiopia

Tekalign Kejela, Ph.D

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: October 17, 2020

The novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) has been a major public health trait across the world since its first emergence in Wuhan, China in 29th December 2019. The fact that the disease is new little has been known about the virus and factors contributing to the fast spread of the virus. WHO recommendations to control the spread of the virus are universal and needs contextualization further analysis of contributing factors at country level. Hence, countries across the globe implemented different control...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510168

Exposure Incidents and Outcome of Lassa Fever Virus (LASV) Infection among Healthcare Workers in Nigeria, 2019

Muhammad Saleh, Chioma Dan-Nwafor, Oladipupo Ipadeola, Winifred Ukponu, Sandra Mba, Chukwuyem Abejegah, Adunola Oyegoke, Usman Adekanye, Moses Tuko, Lateefat Amao, Adebola Olayinka, Lois Olajide, Osahogie Edeawe, Ibrahim Maigari, Patrick Echekwube Damian Nwidi, John Oladejo, Elsie Ilori and Chikwe Ihekweazu

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 15, 2020

Lassa fever (LF) is a zoonotic disease endemic in Nigeria. Primary infection through exposure to excreta, urine or saliva of infected rodents is the most common mode of infection. There is documented evidence of human to human (HTH) transmission, especially among healthcare workers (HCWs) who are more at risk of nosocomial transmission in a hospital environment. In the 2018 Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria, eight percent of all cases occurred among HCWs. This paper describes the patterns of expos...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510167

An Examination of COVID-19 among Healthcare Workers in a Highly Affected Region of the Bronx, New York City

Adetokunbo Obayemi, MD, Rita Roure, MD, Brittany Taylor, MD, Brian Altonen, MS, MPH, Akinola Fisher, MD and Victoria E Banuchi, MD, MPH

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 07, 2020

Health care workers (HCWs) have been disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, but this specific population’s infection risk remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of COVID-19 infection and associated predictors among select hospital staff in the Bronx, New York City. 919 SARS-CoV2 RT-PCR results were retrospectively reviewed from 890 HCWs seeking testing between March 18th and April 24th, 2020. Demographic data, job title, clinical history, PCR r...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510166

Prevalence of Malaria and Typhoid Coinfection in Relation to Haematological Profile of University Students in Akure, Nigeria

IA Simon-Oke and MO Akinbote

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: October 05, 2020

A cross-sectional study was conducted on Two hundred students. Venous blood samples were collected for Widal and Malaria test. The Widal agglutination test was performed by the rapid slide titration method using commercial antigen suspension (Cal-Test Diagnostic Inc. Chino, U.S.A.) and Malaria diagnosis was carried out using antigen based- Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT). Of the 200 examined students, 121 (60.5%) were positive for malaria and 161 (80.5%) were positive for typhoid fever. Male were mo...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510164

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Covid-19 among a Cross-Sectional Sample from Karachi, Pakistan: Descriptive Data

Naseem Ahmed, Wardah Hassan, Rabia Rasool, Usman Fahim, Ayesha Shakil and Kiran Shafiq Khan

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 28, 2020

COVID-19, short for coronavirus disease 2019 is responsible for causing coronavirus disease that has been declared as a pandemic. On 30th January it was declared as the worldwide emergency crisis. It is very similar to its previous strain SARS-CoV that was known to cause an outbreak in 2002. Another strain MERS-CoV was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012. COVID-19 is first identified in Wuhan, China then it spread to multiple countries and become a significant danger for the globe. On 26th ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510163

An Atypical Case Presentation of a Mammary Pseudotumor in a Young Moroccan Woman

Ilyas El Kassimi, Meryem Zaizaa, Nawal Sahel, Zakaria Toufga, Amine Kessab, Amal Baicha, Adil Rkiouak and Youssef Sekkach

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 24, 2020

Some tuberculosis locations are rare or even exceptional and mammary tuberculosis (MT) is the least frequent one among visceral locations. MT still presents difficulties both in its diagnosis and treatment. We’re reporting the case of a 24-years-old female patient, with no medical history, for instance, no tuberculosis contact. She was admitted for exploration of a fever associated to a general state deterioration, and arthralgia, the physical examination found a lump in her right breast, an e...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510162

Modelling and Forecasting of COVID-19 in India

Pradeep Mishra, Abdullah Mohammad Ghazi Al Khatib, Iqra Sardar, Jamal Mohammed, M Ray, Manish Kumar, Deepa Rawat, SA Pandey, Anurag Dubey, Jos Feys and Kipkoech Rono

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 18, 2020

Novel corona virus (Covid-19) is biggest challenge for whole world. World Health Organization (WHO) mentioned this is epidemic.Data has been collected from 209 different individual situation reports of World health organization for Covid-19 in India. First compared the forecasting models on the basis minimum AIC, MAPE, MAE and then best model have been used for forecasting on the India epidemiological data to anticipate the epidemiological pattern of the prevalence. New and total deaths and occu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510161

Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Pulmonary Kaposi Sarcoma: A Case Report

Richard H Zou, MD, Vi Dam-Bao Nguyen, BS, Patrice A Zigrossi, MD, John M Beckham, MD, Brandon J Smith, MD, PharmD, Matthew J Gorgone, DO, Haris Zia, MD, Daniel Martinez Coconubo, MD, Michael S Landau, MD, Humberto E Trejo Bittar, MD, FACP, Roy W Semaan, MD, Georgios D Kitsios, MD, PhD and Christiane M Hadi, MD, MPH, MSc

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 13, 2020

Pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade malignant neoplasm associated with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), seen predominantly in immunocompromised hosts. Classically, diagnosis relies on the combination of clinical history, exclusion of alternative infectious and neoplastic etiologies, and histopathologic confirmation of proliferating spindle cells staining positive for HHV-8. Tissue-based diagnosis requires bronchoscopy with biopsy and is associated with procedural complications, such as blee...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510160

Ocular Manifestation of Lyme Disease: A Rare Case of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

Nasha Elavia, Si Li, Yichen Wang, Ibitola Yusuf and John Weisenreider

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 13, 2020

A 63-year-old male from Northeastern Pennsylvania presented in fall with the complaint of sudden onset of blurred vision in the right eye. This was preceded by a history of Lyme arthritis diagnosed with positive immunoglobulin titers (IgG and IgM) on Western blot analyses of the synovial fluid four weeks ago. His past medical history was remarkable for hypertension and hyperlipidemia. The sudden decrease in right eye visual acuity was moderate and reported at all distances. The patient denied an...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510159

Genotype 4 Reassortant Eurasian Avian-like H1N1 Virus: Are We Ready for Another Global Threat or Pandemic?

Mujahed I Mustafa, Ayman Ahmed and Abdelrafie M Makhawi

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: September 13, 2020

The currently developing devastating pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has took over the global attention. Meanwhile, another virus with high potentiality to grow into a global pandemic has emerged in China, where human infections of the strain genotype 4 (G4) reassortant Eurasian avian-like (EA) H1N1 virus had been reported. However, fortunately human-to-human transmission was not detected yet but we need to keep an eye out for such potential scenario particularly that by the ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510158

Mathematical Model for the Transmission of Covid-19 with Nonlinear Forces of Infection and the Need for Prevention Measure in Nigeria

Daniel Deborah O

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 13, 2020

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a great threat to global public health; of which was reported to emerge in Wuhan, China at the end of the year 2019. It became alarming to Nigerians when Nigeria recorded her first index case in February 2020 in the city of Lagos which has led to a total number of 5162 confirmed cases, 1180 recovered with 167 death recorded as at May 14, 2020. This paper proposes a mathematical model SEIQCRW which adopt the SEIR model to study the current outbrea...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510157

Clinical Signs of River Blindness and the Efficacy of Ivermectin Therapy in Idogun, Ondo State, Nigeria

Afolabi Olajide Joseph

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 12, 2020

River blindness is a skin, and an eye disease caused by Onchocerca volvulus and vectored by a female hematophagous blackfly. The study aims to evaluate the distribution of the clinical signs of river blindness and the efficacy of Ivermectin in the treatment of river blindness in Idogun. Observational studies in epidemiology which involve the use of structured questionnaire to obtain useful epidemiological information from the respondents, physical assessment via palpation from head to ankle was ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510155

Genetic Diversity of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Pregnancy-Associated Listeriosis Occurring in Argentina from 1986 to 2016

Mónica Prieto, Claudia Martínez, Lucía Cipolla, Florencia Rocca and Rita Armitano

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: September 04, 2020

One case of pregnancy-related listeriosis was defined as a pregnant woman or newborn infant aged < 28 days from whom L. monocytogenes has been isolated from a sterile site such as the blood, placenta or cerebrospinal fluid. Based on epidemiological and clinical data available, cases were classified as: Maternal infection with ongoing pregnancy, fetal loss and live born neonatal listeriosis. Fetal loss was defined as the death of the fetus that occurred prior to the complete expulsion or removal ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510156

The Implications of Misconceptions about Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic in Relation to its Daily Increases from Nigerian Perspective

Julius A Aminu

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 05, 2020

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic in the world especially in African continent and Nigeria in particular has created negative effects on humanity. Continuous holding on to some misconceptions about the reality of the virus among people may create further problems for humankind. However, very few studies particularly in Nigeria have actually considered the implications of these misconceptions about the disease in relation to its daily increases; coupled with the fact that many people still hold o...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510154

Prevalence of Scabies and Associated Factors among Primary School Children in Raya Alamata District, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2017/2018

Sindayo Tefera, Molla Teferi, Assefa Ayalew, Tilahun Belete and Haven Hadush

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 03, 2020

Scabies is a skin infection that is a result of direct skin to skin contact and is primarily mediated by close and extended contact with scabies infested person. Scabies occurs worldwide among people of all ages, races, genders and social classes and has been identified as a neglected tropical infectious disease. Globally, it affects more than 130 million people at any time. The aim of the study was to assess prevalence of scabies and associated factors among primary school children in Raya Alam...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510153

Statistical Analyses of COVID-19 Cases in India

Neha K Gadhvi

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 03, 2020

COVID-19 outbreak was first reported in Wuhan, China and has spread most of the countries of the world. The outbreak spreads are largely influenced by each country’s policy and social responsibility. According to WHO, the estimate of attack the rate on 23, June, 2020 to be between 1.4 to 2.5. In India the situation is somehow controllable compared to the situations of developed countries. It will be worth interesting to know about the fact and figures of corona cases in India. The different ty...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510139

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in a Patient Suspected of Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19)

Rony Shah, MD, Linda Klumpp, MD, Naeem Syed, DO, Parth Patel, MD and Jeffrey Jordan, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 03, 2020

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARSCoV- 2) is a novel coronavirus which has become a worldwide pandemic, the other common coronaviruses to cause deadly respiratory disease are SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV are commonly transmitted through respiratory droplets and direct contact. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 can present with varying severity from asymptomatic to multi-organ failure. We present a rare case of abdominal compartment syndrome in a patient suspe...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510125

A Review of the Public Health and Municipal Hospital Response to the Bronx County, New York Legionnaires’ Disease Outbreak

Michael Skelly, Mohammad Abu-Hishmeh, Jaime Mogollon, Ibrahim El Husseini, Yekaterina Sitnitskaya, Nicholas Caputo, Riyad Basir, Talya Toledano, Menachem Gold, Mohamed Ramadan, Edgardo Guzman, Isaac Boyack and Karen Hennessey

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: May 22, 2020

The second largest outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease in United States history began in July, 2015 in Bronx County, NY. It was initially described as a single outbreak affecting 138 patients with 16 deaths. Subsequently, additional cases were noted in the same area and time period, officially attributed to different exposures, making the final total 155 patients and 17 deaths before ending in September, 2015. The largest portion of cases was seen at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center with...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510152

Investigation on the Sub-Health Status of Healthcare Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Miao-hang Shan, Yan-bin Pan, Wan-xian Lu, Jin-ling Wu, Wen-ying Li and Dong-yu Zeng

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 07, 2020

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus infection, showing a general susceptibility pattern and extremely high infectivity. It is currently a public health emergency of international concern. As the direct staff to deal with and control the pandemic situation, healthcare workers may experience physical, psychological, and social stresses at different levels. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the sub-health status of healthcare workers to provi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510151

Efficacy and Safety Data of Treatments for Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (SARS-Cov-2): A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

Alhassane Diallo, MD, PhD, Marie Traoré, MD, Miguel Carlos-Bolumbu, MD, Mamadou Hassimiou Diallo, MSc and Boubacar Djelo Diallo, MD

Article Type: Systematic Review | First Published: August 06, 2020

To date, there is no definite effective treatment for the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. To compare and rank SARS-Cov-2 treatment according to their efficacy and safety. Using the terms Covid-19 or SARS-CoV-2 and treatment, a literature search was performed from MEDLINE, GOOGLE, and CENTRAL databases until July 01, 2020. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) against SARS-CoV-2 disease were included. The studies excluded were those with nonrandomized design or those with a lack of informati...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510149

Fulminant COVID-19 Pneumonia in a 53-Yr-Old Man: A Case Report

Vivian Gga Kwaghe, Zaiyad Garba Habib, Anthony Bawa, Francis Olayemi Adebayo, Alexander Agada Akor, Yunusa Thairu and Bissallah Ahmed Ekele

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 31, 2020

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel coronavirus now called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The most serious complication of COVID-19 is a type of pneumonia that’s been called 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia (NCIP). COVID-19 pneumonia presents as an atypical pneumonia, with diffuse bilateral lung involvement. Severe cases present with acute lung injury, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510148

Increase in Daily New COVID-19 Cases Not Seen Following the Wisconsin Primary Election April 2020

Andrew C Berry, DO, Madhuri S Mulekar, PhD and Bruce B Berry, MD

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: July 30, 2020

We did not design the election process as an experiment, we observed the outcome of the events. Using the voting age population for the United States (US), and Wisconsin (WI), and daily COVID-19 case reports from various dashboards, daily new case rates (all rates per 100,000 voting age adults) were calculated. With election day April 7, allowing for initial incubation, we choose to measure April 12-21. WI daily new case rates were 3.647 in the 10 day period leading up to the election and they f...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510147

Assumption of Herd Immunity against COVID-19: A Plausibility and Hope or a Terrible Thought in Modern-Day to Save the Life

Suneel Prajapati and Narasimha Kumar GV

Article Type: Short Commentary | First Published: July 25, 2020

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has first emerged in the province of Hubei, China, in late December 2019, and the contagious form of disease covered the whole world by the rapid spread. As of July 12, 2020, there are 12,879,107 confirmed cases of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and 5,68,422 deaths were reported globally. However, after its first appearance in China, the United States of America (USA) and Europe were worst hit by COVID-19 and emerged as the epic centr...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510150

On Distance Respiratory Virus Transmission: Sate of Evidence

Luisetto M, Naseer Almukthar, A Yesvi Rafa, Manmohan Singh Jangdey, Fiazza C, Ferraiuolo A and Latischev Oleg Yu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 31, 2020

Aim of this work is to verify hypotesys of air-borne transmission on distance related some respiratory and other virus and to compare with actual Covid-19 pandemic diffusion. After an analysis of relevant literature involved and submitting an experimental hypotesys a global conclusion is submitted for further research activity. Some peculiarity in Covid-19 diffusion velocity and mortality rate in some high polluted world region contributes to increase the interest in these topics....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510146

COVID-19: An Insight into SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic Originated at Wuhan City in Hubei Province of China

Mohan BS and Vinod Nambiar

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 18, 2020

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), originated at Wuhan city of China in early December 2019 has rapidly widespread with confirmed cases in almost every country across the world and has become a new global public health crisis. The etiological agent was designated as Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). The virus was originated in bats and transmits through respiratory droplets and surface contact and then by touching mouth, eyes, and nose. The World Health Organi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510145

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Transmission, Risk Factors, Prevention and Control: A Minireview

Oluwaseun Awosolu and Oluwole Oladele

Article Type: Mini Review | First Published: July 18, 2020

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which was initially named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019 nCoV) have continued to spread at an alarming rate across the globe. It was declared as a pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) due to its worldwide exponential spread and impact leading to high morbidity and mortality. Generalday- to-day activities was heavily destabilized due to lockdown and Movement Control Order (MCO) policy w...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510144

Estimation of Basic Reproduction Number (Ro) of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) from SEIR Model in Perspective of Bangladesh

Himel Talukder, Konad Debnath, Ahsan Raquib, Mohammod Misbah Uddin and Md Safwan Hussain

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 17, 2020

This study used Susceptible-Exposed-Infected- Recovered (SEIR) compartmental model and their differential equations for the calculation of Ro and for the favor of calculation assume that, all the cases that occurred before 15 April, 2020 occurs under free propagation without any intervention. This study calculated the Ro based on the real time confirmed cases and suspected cases in April 14 and also theoretical prediction of cases based on other studies. Other parameters for calculation were tak...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510143

Evaluation of the Burden and Intervention Strategies of TBHIV Co-Infection in West Africa

Sampson E Akwafuo, Theresa Abah and Joseph R Oppong

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: July 17, 2020

The co-infection of Tuberculosis with HIV has continually placed an immense burden on public health systems, mostly in Low and Middle Income (LMIC) countries. We present a geographical analysis of current intervention programs and prevalence rates in two West African states (Ghana and Nigeria). In some regions with higher co-infection rates and dense population, interventions were seen to be relatively lower, relative to other less densely populated regions. A hybrid mathematical and agent-based...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510142

A Descriptive Study of Confirmed COVID-19 Cases in Bhutan

Kinley Gyem, Adeep Monger, Jit Bdr Darnal, Lila Maya Adhikari, Sonam Wangchuk and Tandin Dorji

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 13, 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic has stretched into the tiny Himalayan country Bhutan and the first suspected case was seen on 27th January 2020. There are no reports available in the country till date. Therefore, a descriptive study was conducted to understand the epidemiological characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Bhutan as of 30th April 2020. Data were extracted from the Royal Center for Disease Control COVID-19 information database and analyzed using Epi Info 7.2....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510141

Gut Feeling: The Plausible Faecal-Oral Transmission Route of Covid-19

Mohammad Khalid Parvez

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: July 11, 2020

The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2 is taking a toll on public health. The spread of Covid-19 is confirmed through person-to-person direct contact, aerosolized nasal or oral droplets, and fomites. The clinical symptoms of Covid-19 are cough, headache, fever and breathlessness, including mild to severe pneumonia and death. In addition, a proportion of individuals experience vomiting, stomach ache or diarrhoea with or without respiratory disease. Recent clinical studies have report...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510140

The Challenges of Using Insecticides Treated Nets (ITNs) in Curbing Malaria in Nigeria: A 2000-2018 Systematic Review

Blessed K Ajegena and Victor B Oti

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 04, 2020

The proper use of Insecticides treated nets (ITNs) has been adjudged an efficacious and cost-effective method for curbing malaria. Despite the distribution of ITNs in Nigeria, malaria remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality, especially among children below 5-years-old. This systematic review was intended to document the factors mitigating the use of ITNs in Nigeria. Scholarly articles published from the year 2000 through 2018 were reviewed. Six (6) databases (Medline, PubMed, ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510138

Recurrence or Relapse of COVID 19 Infection

Gary R Skankey, MD and Christopher Breeden, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: July 03, 2020

We present a patient who is a 67-year-old female who is morbidly obese (BMI 62), but otherwise healthy, who was admitted on 4/6/2020 (day 0) with a five day history of fever and diarrhea, followed by 24 hours worth of increasing shortness of breath, dry cough, nausea, and dry heaves. A chest x-ray showed bilateral infiltrates consistent with congestive heart failure, however B-naturetic peptide was only 284 (NL < 125). Blood work was as follows: WBC - 3420, ABG - 7.43/34/64 on 6 liters O2, Quant...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510137

Possible Correlation between Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) Vaccination Policy and SARS-Cov-2 Transmission, Morbidity and Mortality Rates: Implications for the African Continent

Oluwafolajimi Adetoye Adesanya and Ikponmwosa Gabriel Ebengho

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: July 03, 2020

Since its discovery in the Huanan Seafood Market, Hubei province, Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the 2019-novel Coronavirus has evolved rapidly into a global pandemic of devastating proportions. With the most developed health systems of the world struggling to contain the spread, there have been concerns raised about the relatively lower case and mortality figures coming out of the African continent, especially in the earlier days of the outbreak. While most institutions are quick to raise the ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510136

The Emergent Pandemic- A Review on Coronavirus SARSCov- 2: Virology, Pathogenesis and Outbreak

Dr. Karan R Shah, Dr. Dipika B Utekar, Dr. Shital S Nikam, Dr. Ajay R Bhoosreddy and Dr. Seema R Patil

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 26, 2020

The coronaviruses have been found to affect the human life and ecosystem since past few years now. First the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), then MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) and now the recent infection caused by yet another category of coronaviruses have proved to be fatal to human life. In December 2019, few cases of pneumonia of unknown cause were reported in the Hubei province of Wuhan City, China. Later after thorough investigations it was found that these patients wer...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510134

The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Infectious Diseases

Scott Zimmerman

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: June 19, 2020

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in spring/summer air and water reach germicidal levels. It is proposed that variations in naturally occurring ROS are the primary cause of influenza seasonality. Recent NIH and DHS COVID-19 aerosol and droplet log kill measurements do not account for this natural germicidal effect leading to over estimations of halflife for the virus in real world conditions. A new formulation of the Wells Riley equation is proposed that includes ROS and viral load factors. It is pr...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510135

Bromhexine Hydrochloride: Potential Approach to Prevent or Treat Early Stage Novel 2019 Coronavirus Disease

Dmitry Stepanov, DESA and Peter Lierz, MD

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: June 20, 2020

An emerging international outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has already become a problem for physicians and scientists globally. Although the majority of patients withstand the novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) without vital threats, many people develop severe respiratory failure, leading to fatal consequences. A clinical trial from Wuhan, China has demonstrated that 86% of the patients who required invasive ventilation and 79% among those who needed a non-invasive ventilatory...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510133

Clinical Characteristics and Obstetric Outcome of Symptomatic Dengue Infection in Pregnancy from a Tertiary Care Center in South India

Sutharsika Thiyagalingam, Sasirekha Rengaraj and Saranya Rajamanickkam

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 13, 2020

Dengue, the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral infection has a wide range of clinical presentation and the incidence is on the rise in the recent past. There is a concern that dengue infection in pregnancy might be associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcome however there is paucity in the literature available. The aim of the present study was to analyze the outcome of dengue infection which required hospitalizations and were managed in a tertiary care center. A total of 52 pregnant ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510132

Burden of Hepatitis B Infection among High Risk Populations in Western Kenya

Mercy Jelagat Karoney, MBChB, MSc, MMed, Fatuma Faraj Some, MBChB, MBA MMed, Hellen Irusa Lukhaka Dip, Eric Wang'welo Dip, Laban Kipkemei Murgor BA and Adrian Gardner, MD, MPH

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 13, 2020

Hepatitis B infection causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Chronic hepatitis B infection has been on the rise since 1990 with the highest prevalence reported in sub-Saharan Africa. Health care workers, intravenous drug users, commercial sex workers and men who have sex with men (MSM) are high risk groups for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Due to similar routes of transmission, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals are also at high risk for Hepatitis B infec...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510130

Adverse Effects of Prolonged Mask Use among Healthcare Professionals during COVID-19

Elisheva Rosner, MSN, RN-C

Article Type: Survey | First Published: June 01, 2020

In March 2020, New York City encountered its first official case of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). This novel coronavirus, referred to as SARS-COV 2, originated in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Within a short amount of time, hundreds of thousands of cases were diagnosed around the world and the United States, causing the World Health Organization to announce it as an official infectious disease pandemic on January 30, 2020. COVID-19 is spread by respiratory droplets, and healthcare profes...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510129

When Influenza A and COVID-19 Infections Co-exist: A Case Report

Ibrahim Haddad, MD, Mohammad Alomari, MD, Bara El Kurdi, MD, Vindhya Sriramoju, MD and Rupal Shah, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 29, 2020

A 55-year-old man, who presented to our emergency department complaining of pleuritic chest pain for two days before admission. At the time of evaluation, he endorsed the presence of minimal sore throat and dry cough in the absence of fever, shortness breath, recent travel, or contact with sick people. His vital signs were within normal limits and physical examination was positive for right-sided scattered wheezes but otherwise unremarkable. In the emergency department he had a chest X-ray which...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510131

A Multicountry Level Comparison of BCG Vaccination Policy and COVID-19 Cases and Mortality

Moses Katbi, Oluwatosin Adeoye, Adefisayo Adedoyin, Adeoye Adegboye, Iyiola Faturiyele, Maryam Bello, Rose Khatri and Michele Russel

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 06, 2020

Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in immeasurable disruptions in countries activities. Since the first reported case in December 2019, an estimated 140,000 people have died, with a case fatality rate of about 3%. The increasing rate of new cases and the evolving epidemiology of the COVID-19 virus means that the global health community is grappling to understand the current situation. The aim of this paper is to determine if the Bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine used to protect aga...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510127

Epidemiological Trends, Characteristics, and Distribution of COVID-19: Lessons from SARS and MERS Outbreaks and Way Forward

Amen Bawazir, Nagarajkumar Yenugadhati, PhD, Omar B Da’ar and Hoda Jradi

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: May 22, 2020

Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses became an emerging worldwide health concern. Previously Coronaviruses caused mild infections in immunocompromised people and were not considered to be highly pathogenic in humans until they circulated in the Guangdong province of China in 2002 and 2003 during the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak. A decade following the aforementioned SARS outbreak, we witnessed the emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERSCoV...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510124

Shiga Toxin 2 Mediated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Complicated By Clostridium Septicum Bacteremia in a 4-Year-Old

Peter Paul Lim, MD, Christina Rae Nguyen, MD, Daniel Rhoads, MD and Arlene Dent, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 21, 2020

Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) is a potent toxin produced by shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) that is commonly linked to development of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). An extremely rare complication of shiga toxin associated (STEC) hemolytic uremic syndrome is concomitant infection with Clostridium septicum. The majority of pediatric patients with HUS complicated by C. septicum infection had complications including CNS involvement, severe renal insult often requiring hemodialysis, and myonecrosis war...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510123

Risk Factors Associated with Prevalence and Intensity of Gastro-Intestinal Parasitic Infections within Households in Tonga Sub-Division, West Region, Cameroon

Keutchazoue GG Igore, Vincent Khan Payne, Noumedem AC Nadia and Yamssi Cedric

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 21, 2020

Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) remain a public health problem in rural areas of developing countries and are often associated with poor hygienic conditions, poor drinking water quality and unsanitary environmental handling of fecal materials in tropical and subtropical zones. This study was conducted with the objective to assess some epidemiological risk factors associated with prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasitic infections within households in Tonga Sub-Division, West...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510126

Transmission and Control Efforts of COVID-19

Adekunle Sanyaolu, Chuku Okorie, Sadaf Younis, Henry Chan, Nafees Haider, Abu Fahad Abbasi, Oladapo Ayodele, Stephanie Prakash and Aleksandra Marinkovic

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 22, 2020

COVID-19, a pandemic, is an expanding global threat that has nearly affected all the countries in the world. As the pandemic advances without any medical intervention in place, a global lockdown has been issued along with quarantine orders and social distancing restrictions to prevent further transmission. We discussed the transmission and control effort of COVID-19 based on available information since the disease outbreak. COVID-19 can be symptomatic or asymptomatic, spreading from person-to-pe...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510121

Oxidative Stress Associated with SARS-Cov-2 (COVID-19) Increases the Severity of the Lung Disease - A Systematic Review

Samir Derouiche

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 04, 2020

COVID-19 patients have a higher risk of developing inflammatory responses associated with serious and even fatal respiratory diseases. This review focuses on the relationship between oxidative stress and COVID-19. Coronaviruses are a family of common RNA viruses that can cause serious lower respiratory tract infections, followed by bronchitis and pneumonia. Pulmonary inflammation, fever and fibrosis are symptoms of COVID-19 mediated by cytokine pro-inflammatory. Oxidative stress affect repair me...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510122

Veno-Venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (VV-ECMO) Used in the Management of Lemierre's Syndrome

Marcus Taylor, MRCS, Denish Apparau, MRCS and Kandadai Rammohan, FRCS-CTh

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: May 14, 2020

A 21-year-old female presented with non-specific symptoms of cough and sore throat. She rapidly became profoundly unwell, requiring intubation and ventilation. Clinical and radiological appearances were felt to be in keeping with Lemierre’s Syndrome (LS). The diagnosis of LS was confirmed when pleural fluid samples were found to contain Prevotella veroralis and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Due to worsening respiratory function the patient was commenced on veno- venous extracorporeal membrane oxy...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510119

Past, Present and Future of Pandemics (COVID-19)

Mzee Said Abdulrahman Salim and Muslimat Kehinde Adebisi

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 30, 2020

From herpes and legionnaires' disease in the 1970s to AIDS, Ebola, the severe acute and respiratory syndrome (SARS), contagious diseases continue to threaten and disrupt human societies. The end of last year (2019) doctors in Hubei province encountered patients with flu-like symptoms that are similar in characteristics to SARs having consistent aetiologies unfamiliar to them but with a possible link to their prior knowledge. A virus outbreak which has a genomic sequence similar to that of β vir...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510128

Dynamics of COVID-19: Modelling and Analysis

Umair Ali Wani, Aadil Bakshi and Moazam Ali Wani

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 23, 2020

This paper features the SEIR model that can accurately calculate and predict the size of COVID-19 pandemic. Other than classical parameters, the model takes into account lockdown imposed by the government, age composition of the population, testing rate, inflow of patients (immigrants) and availability of tertiary health care facilities measured in terms of number of ICUs. The research takes an overview of then severely affected Italy and less affected India and studies the impact of parameters ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510120

Further Evidence of a Possible Correlation between the Severity of Covid-19 and BCG Immunization

Serge Dolgikh

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 30, 2020

In this work we observe a number of cases supporting the possible correlation between the administration of BCG tuberculosis vaccine and the severity of Covid-19 effects in the population proposed in the earlier works. Based on the early preliminary analysis of the publicly available data we propose a number of arguments and observations providing further support for the correlation hypothesis and make an observation that the effectiveness of the protection effect of BCG immunization, if confirm...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510117

Ozone Autohemotherapy: Possible Mechanisms of Anti-Viral Action and Anti Oxidative

Bilal Mohamad Ali Obeid, MD, MBA, PHD

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: April 29, 2020

While ozone is the trigger, several blood components such as erythrocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, platelets, and plasma components act as substrates and are responsible for setting in motion a number of biological effects that, directly or indirectly, are responsible for the clinical improvement observed after the autohaemotherapeutic treatment in chronic viral diseases...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510118

Strategies of the World Health Organization in the Covid 19 Outbreak

Emel Yürük Bal, (RN) MSc and Şenay Çetinkaya, PhD

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: April 30, 2020

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. Coronaviruses are single-chain, positive-polar, enveloped RNA viruses. Over the past 2 weeks, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has marched relentlessly westward. On March 13, WHO said that Europe was now the centre of the pandemic. A few days later, deaths in Italy surpassed those in China. Iran and Spain had also reported over 1000 deaths as of March 23, and many other European coun...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510115

Hepatitis B Envelope Antigen in Adult Carriers of Chronic Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in a Tertiary Health Facility in North East Nigeria: 2000 - 2015

Isaac Warnow Elon, Jalo Iliya, Alkali Yaya, Ajani Ayomikun, Abubakar Joshua Difa, Oyeniyi C, Aremu John and Danlami Halilu

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 09, 2020

Hepatitis B infection continues to be a serious global health problem with about 2 billion people infected worldwide, many of these in sub-Saharan Africa. Records of Hepatitis B surface and envelope antigen test results in adults attending the outpatient units and/ or admitted in Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe between May 2000 and May 2015 were retrieved and analyzed. Hepatitis B surface antigen was tested for in 22,862 adults and children; 20375 (89.1%) were adults and 2487 (10.9%) were child...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510116

COVID-19 Threat to Major Global Urban Centers

Jean-dAmour K Twibanire

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: April 22, 2020

The world is facing an unprecedented test by an enemy, a novel and deadly enemy, the COVID-19 pandemic. As COVID-19 continues to spread all around the world, social, political and serious economic consequences await this planet. After the introduction and a brief epidemiological summary, this article discusses the threat that is COVID-19 to major global urban centers. The impact of COVID-19 across the globe is particularly inimitable and more so in major global urban centers for several reasons ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510114

MMR Vaccine Adverse Drug Reactions Reports in the CDC WONDER System, 1989-2019

Guillermo Rodriguez-Nava, MD, Maria Adriana Yanez-Bello, MD and Danieal Patricia Trelles-Garcia, MD

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: March 14, 2020

We retrieved data from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database, a national post-licensure vaccine safety surveillance system, through the CDC WONDER interface for reports of children aged 12 months to 6 years vaccinated with the MMR vaccine in the U.S. between January 1, 1989 and January 1, 2019. Specific ADRs evaluated in this analysis included anaphylaxis, febrile seizures, encephalitis, and orchitis. Disproportionate reporting of ADRs was assessed using proportional report...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510113

A Plausible

Robert Jay Rowen, MD and Howard Robins, DPM

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: March 06, 2020

Many viruses require reduced sulfhydryl groups for cell fusion and entry. Corona viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 (the cause of the condition now named coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19), are rich in cysteine, which residues must be intact for viral activity. Sulfhydryl groups are vulnerable to oxidation. Ozone therapy, a very inexpensive and safe modality may safely exploit this critical vulnerability in many viruses, inclusive of SARS-CoV-2. Mainstream medicine has little in its arsenal for vi...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510112

Deferring Antibiotic Prescribing in Nursing Home Residents with Asymptomatic Bacteriuria: A Pilot Educational Intervention

Emilie Kennedy, DNP, CRNP, FNP-C

Article Type: Clinical Research Article | First Published: March 04, 2020

Unnecessary antibiotic use in nursing home patients leads to negative outcomes including the emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria, adverse drug events, polypharmacy and higher health care costs. The purpose of this study was to develop and assess the effects of a pilot clinical staff educational intervention on best practices for the management of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in nursing home residents. A multi-faceted educational intervention program on ASB was provided to Emergency Depa...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510111

Predictors of Dengue Shock Syndrome: APTT Elevation as a Risk Factor in Children with Dengue Fever

Vijayaraghavan, MD, Thay Wee Ying, MD, Foong Shing Weu, MD and Hafsa Palile

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: February 17, 2020

A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the risk factors in dengue cases admitted from 2005 to 2010 in Tawau Hospital, Sabah. A total of 732 cases admitted as suspected dengue were analysed and out of it 203 patients were found to be positive for dengue serology. Clinical and Laboratory data’s were collected and analysed for the risk factors. In our observation over period of time we found APTT was raised in most of the DHF/DSS. So want to see the significance of APTT as a risk fact...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510110

Dog Scratch Fever Secondary to Capnocytophaga Species in a Patient Without Risk Factors

Linda C Klumpp, MD, Gustine Liu-Young, MD, James Craig, MD, Leonard Hamera, MD, Jeffrey Jordan, MD, Srinivas Dantuluri, DO and Sunoj Abraham, MD

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 12, 2020

Capnocytophaga is a rare bacteria found in the saliva of canines. C. canimorsus is present in the oral cavity of 67-86% of dogs. In vitro growth requires specialized media. Patients who are immunocompromised are at greatest risk for infection. There are no clinical trials examining the duration of antibiotics. Capnocytophaga species is a very rare fastidious, slow growing gram negative rod found in the saliva of canines and felines. It belongs to the genus flavobacteriacea, a capnophilic faculta...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510109

Aeromonas Hydrophila Infection in an Immunocompetent Patient Leading to Necrotizing Fasciitis

Asish Regmi and Pushpa Khanal

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: February 10, 2020

We present to you the case of 77 YO female with PMH of DM, A fib and recent H/O ascending cholangitis and cholecystectomy complicated by ruptured gallbladder with bile peritonitis and JP drain placement. After the discharge she was having diarrhea and was tested positive for C diff and was started on oral vancomycin. Almost about 2 weeks after the discharge she started to develop sudden onset of right leg pain, because of that she was taken to the ED of outside hospital where there was a suspici...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510108

An Acute Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Astrovirus Serotype 4 in a School of Shenzhen City, China, 2017

Luo Li, Li Yuan, Gao Zhiyong, Zeng Jinshui, Lian Yiyao, Song Wentao, Lv Bin, Chen Qi, Liu Na, Jin Miao, Liao Qiaohong, Wu shuyu, Li Zhongjie, Shi Guoqing and Ran Lu

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 29, 2020

Human astrovirus (HAstV) was first detected by Appleton and Higgins in 1975 in association with an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in a maternity ward in England, and the same year named by Madeley and Cosgrove because of its star-like appearance. Astrovirus along with rotavirus, norovirus and sapovirus, is recognized as a common cause of viral acute gastroenteritis in adults and children. Similarly, with other enteric pathogens, the main clinical symptoms of astrovirus are vomiting, diarrhea,...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510107

Influence of Land Cover and Host Species on Trypanosome Infection in Cattle and its Socio-Economic Impacts to Pastoralists of the Maasai Steppe, Tanzania

Kelvin Ngongolo, Gabriel Shirima, Emmanuel A Mpolya, Anna B Estes, Peter J Hudson and Paul S Gwakisa

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 29, 2020

We undertook a cohort field study in three villages of the Maasai Steppe: Sukuro, Kimotorok and Oltukai. The study took place in July 2017 and October 2017 and utilized 50 cattle from each village. Pastoralists were asked questions during each visit when blood sampled were taken to seek their viewpoint on the relative abundance of wildlife, habitat types and cultivation observed in the areas their cattle grazed. In addition, the percentage cover of cultivated land and habitat types in the grazin...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510106

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): An Imprecisely Defined Infectious Disease Caused by Stealth Adapted Viruses

W John Martin

Article Type: Commentary | First Published: January 20, 2020

Much of the research on the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is misguided for two major reasons. First, it is falsely assumed that CFS is a distinct, definable illness, which can be reliably differentiated from other neurological and psychiatric illnesses. Second, in spite of compelling evidence to the contrary, CFS is not generally regarded as an infectious illness. This review addresses these two issues and is followed by a brief discussion on stealth adapted viruses and the alternative cellular...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510105

Pilot Study on Frequency in Schoolchildren with Parasitism

Osvaldo Batista Rojas, MSc

Article Type: Research Ar ticle | First Published: January 15, 2020

Among infectious diseases, those produced by intestinal parasites are an important health problem for man. To characterize intestinal parasitism clinically and epidemiologically in young patients. An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Clinic 11 of the Finlay Polyclinic with schoolchildren diagnosed with intestinal parasitisms from the Hermanos Montalvo Primary School January-May 2019. There was a predominance of the male sex with 91%, with the age group m...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510104

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Ebola Virus Disease among Students at a School of Medicine in Dakar, Senegal

Diallo Mbaye K, Fortes L, Lakhe NA, Cisse Diallo VMP, Ka D, Kemi R, Massaly A, Thioub D, Badiane AS, Fall NM, Ndour CT, Soumaré M and Seydi M

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 21, 2019

Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a serious and highly contagious viral disease. It constitutes a public health threat and emergency. Therefore, all medical staff, notably medical students, should be trained to lessen the health outcomes during an outbreak. The aims of this paperwork are to determine the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices regarding EVD of students at St Christopher Iba Mar Diop Medical School in Dakar in the one hand and identify the associated factors the other hand. We carried out ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510103

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Medical Students Regarding Hepatitis B Infection at a Private University of Medicine in Senegal

Fortes Deguenonvo L, Massaly A, Ngom Gueye NF, Diallo Mbaye K, Cisse Diallo VMP, Lakhe NA, Ka D, Thioub D, Badiane AS, Edzang TB, Fall NM, Dieye A, Massaly A, Diop M, Ndour CT, Soumare S and Seydi M

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 19, 2019

Senegal is among the most endemic countries for viral hepatitis B with 11% of chronic HBV carriers. Students in the health sector are among those most at risk. The objectives of this study were to determine the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) of students at a private university in Dakar regarding viral hepatitis B and to identify associated factors. A cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study has been conducted among students of the St Christopher Iba Mar Diop School from April...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510102

Tuberculosis Re-Treatment Cases and Factors Associated with Unfavourable Outcome at the Fann University Hospital of Dakar, Senegal between 2011 and 2016: A Follow-Up Study

Viviane Marie Pierre Cisse Diallo, Louise Fortes Deguenonvo, Aminata Massaly, Ndeye Aissatou Lakhe, Daye Ka, Khardiata Diallo M Baye, Ndeye Fatou Ngom Gueye, Assane Diouf, Farah Djamal Waberi, Alassane Dieye, Ndeye Maguette Fall, Cheikh Tacko Diop, Cheikh Tidiane Ndour, Sylvie Diop Nyafouna, Masserigne Soumare and Moussa Seydi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 09, 2019

The aim of our study was to describe the socio-demographic, clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary characteristics of patients admitted to tuberculosis re-treatment and managed at the The Infectious and Tropical Diseases Department (SMIT) screening and tuberculosis treatment center (TTC), to determine the factors associated with unfavourable outcome. This is a descriptive and analytical retrospective cross sectional study covering all tuberculosis re-treatment cases monitored in the service of i...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510101

Histopathologic Detection and Identification of Infectious Agents in Granulomatous Inflammation: Comparison with Culture

Sarah Hackman, MD and Daniel D Mais, MD

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 09, 2019

Granulomas in surgical specimens, especially within lung and lymph nodes, commonly have an infectious etiology. Granulomatous tissue is usually sent to both surgical pathology for tissue examination and to clinical microbiology laboratories for culture. We performed a retrospective review and comparison of histochemical stains and clinical microbiology culture results in 132 surgical pathology granuloma specimens to determine the utility of tissue morphological examination for detection and iden...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510100

Host-Related Predictors of Persistence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

Engy Mohamed El-Ghitany and Azza Galal Farghaly

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2019

Spontaneous clearance occurs in varying proportions in individuals infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, the factors associated with this clearance are debatable. Their recognition may lead to a better understanding of HCV natural history and eventually improve associated prediction and management models. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the host-related factors associated with persistence of HCV infection. Among 1059 HCV-antibody-positive individuals who denied receiving HCV a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510098

Statistical Behavior of Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases by Probability Distribution Functions

Amaury de Souza, Flavio Aristone, Widinei A Fernandes, Zaccheus Olaofe, Marcel Carvalho Abreu, Jose Francisco de Oliveira Junio, Guilherme Cavazzana and Cícero Manoel dos Santos

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 04, 2019

Climate change has a high impact on health and morbidity/ mortality in respiratory system diseases and remains poorly investigated in probability distribution modeling. The objective of this study was to analyze the adjustments of Burr (Bu), Inv Gausian 3P (IG3P), Lognormal (LN), Pert (Pe), Rayleigh 2P (Ra 2P) and Weibull 3P (W3P) distributions of the historical series of hospitalizations for respiratory diseases (total hospital admissions) for the period from 2004 to 2018, in Campo Grande, MS. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510097

Climate Variability and Its Impact on the Incidence by Dengue in Six Endemic States of the Mexican Republic

Perez Contreras Irma, Alvarado Bravo Krystel Mariel, Barragan Gonzales Alin and Velasco Perez Daniel Alejandro

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 04, 2019

Climate variables are one of the main drivers of dengue epidemics and the proliferation of their vectors. Significant relationships have been found between fluctuations in temperature, rainfall, and the incidence of dengue. The interaction between high levels of these variables significantly influences the increase in the incidence after at least one month of this event. The confirmed cases of dengue reported in the epidemiological bulletins of the Epidemiology General Directorate were collected...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510096

Hepatitis C in Adults and Children: A Cross-Sectional Review from a Tertiary Hospital, Northeast Nigeria during the Period 2008-2015

Isaac Warnow Elon, Ajani Ayomikun, Jalo Iliya, Alkali Yaya, Oyeniyi Christianah, Okolie Henry, Saidu Abubakar, Jibrin Bara, Aremu John, Kudi Ayuba, Danlami Halilu and Charanchi Musa

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 04, 2019

HCV is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver failure related deaths among children, adolescents and adults worldwide. Sub-Saharan Africa suffers disproportionately from lack of access to both screening for HCV and treatment services with a resultant high rate of chronic hepatitis C related morbidity and mortality. Nigeria is considered among countries with high Hepatitis C burden and the national prevalence average in 2013 was estimated to be 2.2%. Routine screen...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510095

Design and Validation of a Survey for the Study of Food and Nutritional Security to Climate Change Vulnerability

Carlos Matias Scavuzzo, Eliana Álvarez Di Fino, Alberto Ferral and Maria Daniela Defago

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 14, 2019

Human Security is a concept instituted by the United Nations and refers to the possibility that each person can satisfy basic needs of different kinds: Health, food, environment, education, economy, politics, institutional access, etc. Both WHO and FAO emphasize these concepts related to food and nutritional security (FNS), and relate it to the vulnerability derived from emergency and disaster situations. These are increasingly frequent and complex in a context of climate change, since they affe...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510093

Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Formidable Threat or Silence before the Storm?

Helen Kest and Ashlesha Kaushik

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 21, 2019

Globally, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), notably methicillin-resistant S. aureus, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Vancomycin is considered a drug of last resort for severe MRSA and other resistant Gram-positive infections. Vancomycin enjoyed a high level of success for decades following MRSA outbreaks until recent reports of increasing S. aureus MICs culminating in high-level vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), first reported in 2002. Since then, there have been selected ca...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510092

Spontaneous Skin Lesions: The Importance of Differential Diagnosis

Montilla Alvaro Mabel, Delgado Vidarte Ana and Alcantara Luna Sara

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 19, 2019

Dermatofitosis are cutaneous infections caused by fungus. They affect the keratinized surface layers epidermis, hair and nails. We report a case of a 42-year-old female patient who presented with erythematous annular lesions with a raised edge on the chest, back, neck, hands and arms. These lesions were compatible with erythema multiforme, subacute lupus and/or ringworm infection. The biopsy of lesions was done and the study showed the structures suggestive of fungi in hematoxylin-eosin staining...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510091

Implication of Enteric Viruses in the Digestive Surgical Pathologies in Tunisian Children

Ben Haj Khalifa A, Jerbi A and Trabelsi A

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 06, 2019

Recent virological studies have shown the association between digestive diseases and some enteric viruses: adenovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, Our objectives were to show the impact of viral infections of the digestive complications and interactions between enteric viruses and digestive tract cells.During the study period, 64 samples were collected from children with gastrointestinal surgical pathologies. The AdV were detected in 9 cases (14%) and rotavirus in 1 case (1.5%). A male predominance ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510090

Prevalence and Determinants of Soil Transmitted Helminthes Infections among Primary School Children in Kerewo Town, Gena Bossa Woreda, Ethiopia: Cross Sectional Study

Teklemariam Ergat Yarinbab and Abebe Demissie Darcha

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: September 04, 2019

Soil-Transmitted Helminthes (STH) infection is a major public health problem among school-aged children in developing countries. In Ethiopia, school aged children have been identified as high risk group of population to be infected with Soil Transmitted Helminthes. Effective prevention and control of STH infection requires identification of risk factors among high risk groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of Soil Transmitted Helminthes infection ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510089

Incidence of Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Site Wound Infection among Frail Elderly Patients Admitted in a Tertiary Medical Center

Adolf Lim-Teodoro, MD, Mabel Angela Sarita, MD, Russel Semeniano, MD and Miguel Ramos Jr, MD, Ph.D

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 04, 2019

Nutrition is an important determinant of health in elderly patients. It also contributes to their overall quality of life and longevity. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube is used to provide enteral access in patients who are unable to swallow to improve nutrition. PEG site infection is an important healthcare-associated infection and this study aims to determine the incidence and clinical profile of PEG site wound infections among elderly patients admitted in a tertiary medical cent...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510088

Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Newborns: The Role of Neonatal Sepsis

Martina Fibbiani, Cristina Tuoni, Massimiliano Ciantelli, Serena Di Marco and Paolo Ghirri

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: September 04, 2019

Neonatal sepsis is an independent risk factor for the development of central nervous system injury, so preterm newborn, who is more exposed to infections, has a higher neurological risk. This research wanted to examine whether and how sepsis could influence preterm newborns neurodevelopmental outcome. Today prematurity is still a topical and globally discussed issue: 15 million preterm infants are born every year in the world and about 1 million of them dies because of the complications linked t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510087

Interaction between Spatial and Temporal Scales for Entomological Field Data: Analysis of Aedes Aegypti Oviposition Series

Sofia Lanfri, Manuel Espinosa, Mario A Lanfri, Victoria M Periago, Marcelo Abril and Carlos M Scavuzzo

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 14, 2019

In Argentina, Aedes aegypti represents an important public health threat, since it is the vector responsible for the transmission of dengue, chikungunya, zika and yellow fever. Mundo Sano Foundation has been carrying out periodic surveys of immature vector stages in several cities of northern Argentina. The main tool to mitigate their spread is through vector control. Similarity between curves does not show spatial continuity in relation to the spatial arrangement of ovitraps, may be due to the ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510086

Descriptive Study of Neisseria Meningitidis Isolates from Patients in Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico in 2010 and 2011

Luz Elena Espinosa de los Monteros Perez, Jimenez Rojas LV, Gomez-Barreto D and Vazquez Moreno JA

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 08, 2019

Neisseria meningitidis is recognized as the cause of Infection Meningococcal Disease (IMD) generally develops rapidly 20% of survivors suffer from neurological and disabling sequelae in spite of prompt antibiotic therapy. The disease is a major concern in public heath worldwide and can occur as sporadic cases, outbreaks, and large epidemics. Although in Mexico the invasive meningococcal disease is notifiable, reports about meningococcal diseases are scarce with no data available related to the p...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510085

Implementation of Same-Day Sputum Smears Microscopy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Programmatic Qualitative Study

Boja Dufera Taddese, KumeraTerfa Kitila, Abay Sisay Misganaw, Daniel Melese Desalegn, Tinsae Kidanemariam Hailu and MeronSeifu Tebeje

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 19, 2019

In countries that have ensured effective External Quality Assessment (EQA) sputum smear microscopy, World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the implementation of same-day smear sputum microcopy. In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, the status of the same-day sputum smear microcopy implementation was not yet assessed. In-depth interview of Health Care Providers (HCPs) at Outpatient Departments (OPDs), clinical laboratories and Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) centres was conducted to ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510084

Older Persons with HIV in Canada

Phan Sok

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 18, 2019

Thanks to the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy, the number of older patients living with HIV, usually defined as individuals over 50 years of age, has markedly increased everywhere in the world. The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiology and special needs of older persons with HIV in Canada now and in the near future. It is estimated that, by 2025 in Canada, one in six of all HIV-infected adults will be over 50 years of age. Most will reside in Ontario, Quebec, and British Co...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510083

Tuberculous Spondylodiscitis in a Military Hospital in Gabon: Report of Eleven Patients

Mangouka Guingali Laurette, Iroungou Berthe A, Bivigou-Mboumba Berthold, Oura Landry, Mwanyombet Lucien and Nzenze Jean Raymond

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 04, 2019

Extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis (TB) are on the rise in sub-Saharan Africa and pose a major public health problem. The spine is the most frequent location of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Involvement of the spine causes severe back pain and weakness in the lower extremities. We report 11 cases of TB spondylodiscitis, commonly referred to as Pott's disease, who presented to the internal medicine department at the Military Hospital of Gabon (HIA OBO)....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510082

Frequency and Characterization Meningococcal Carriage Isolates, among Prisoner's Inmates from Mexico City

Luz Elena Espinosa de los Monteros Perez, Jimsenez Rojas LV, Gomez-Barreto D and Vazquez Moreno JA

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 27, 2019

Meningococcal disease in Mexico has a very low incidence; it is one of the countries with few reported cases as prevalence of the carrier state is unknown. Some studies have shown that many invasive meningococcal diseases are restricted to a specific number of hyper-virulent strains that contrast with carrier isolates. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and characterization of meningococcal carriage isolates among prisoner's inmates. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained, Neisseri...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510081

Epidemiological Notes about Bartonellosis Reactive Samples in Brazil

Maria de Fatima Goncalves Lopez Silva, Francisco Alexsandro Sousa Mesquita, Bidiah Mariano da Costa Neves and Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: June 21, 2019

artonellosis or Cat Scratch Disease (CSD) is defined as an infectious, benign illness that in most cases results from the scratching, licking or biting of animals carrying the bacterium Bartonella henselae. This study aims at describing the epidemiological profile of serologically reactive samples between the years 2011 and December 2017 in Brazil. Official data from the requests for diagnostic tests registered in GAL (Gerenciador de Ambiente Laboratorial/Laboratory Environment Manager) in the M...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510080

Hepatitis B Core Antibody Prevalence among Voluntary Blood Donors in Thailand

Kriangsak Chaiwong, Wilawan Saekram, Panya Thunnok, Sineenart Oota, Sonu Bhatnagar and Ubonwon Charoonruangrit

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: June 03, 2019

Hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody is an effective marker for occult Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and is an integral part of blood donor screening in many countries. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of anti-HBc antibodies among voluntary blood donors in Thailand and its significance to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted HBV infection. A total of 3,197 voluntary blood donor samples that were pre-screened non-reactive for HBs-Ag serology and HBV ID-NAT were tested for...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510079

Influence of Seasonal Cattle Movement on Prevalence of Trypanosome Infections in Cattle in the Maasai Steppe, Tanzania

Kelvin Ngongolo, Anna B Estes, Peter J Hudson and Paul S Gwakisa

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 09, 2019

Animal African Trypanosomosis is a Neglected Tropical Disease with significant impacts to pastoral community livelihoods. Our study sought to determine the influence of seasonal cattle movements on the prevalence of trypanosome infections in cattle in the pastoral areas of the Maasai Steppe. Identification of spatial and temporal dynamics of trypanosome infections in cattle is essential for designing effective control strategies. To identify potential hotspots of trypanosome transmission, we wor...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510078

Assessing Risk Factors for Trypanosome Infections in Cattle in Wildlife Interface Areas in Northern Tanzania

Kelvin Ngongolo, Anna B Estes, Peter J Hudson and Paul S Gwakisa

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 04, 2019

Trypanosomosis is a vector-borne, tropical disease that causes mortality and morbidity in livestock and humans. In this study we investigated the risk factors for trypanosome infection in cattle in the Maasai Steppe of northern Tanzania. We assessed the influence of age, sex, herd size and history of treatment against trypanosomosis as risk factors of trypanosome infection. Cattle blood samples were collected from 150 cattle in three villages in the vicinity of Tarangire National Park, which act...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510077

Health Care System Delay of Tuberculosis Treatment and Its Correlates among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Hadiya Zone Public Health Facilities, Southern Ethiopia

Gedeyon Getahun, Tilahun Beyene Handiso and Lakew Abebe Gebretsadik

Article Type: Research article | First Published: April 06, 2019

Facility based cross sectional study triangulated by Qualitative data collection method. A total 340 PTB patients in Hadiya zone public health facilities included in the study. Health facilities were selected by Simple random sampling method from three woredas. DOTS user at the beginning of data collection was consecutively recruited in to the study until the intended sample size was fulfilled. Multivariable binary Logistic regression was used. A P-value < 0.05 at 95% CI was considered statistic...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510076

Antifungal Resistance of Candida Species in Bacolod City, Philippines

Alain C Juayang, Joseph Peter T Lim, Zeith Ceve B de los Reyes, Mary Dane B Tuante, Zia Isabel P Batiles, Jan Frances Nichole V Guino-o, Francis Raphael A Villanueva and Gemma B de los Reyes

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 05, 2019

Candida species, a group of opportunistic infection-causing microorganisms, has shown an increasing pattern of resistance against certain antifungal drugs through time. Thus, this retrospective study was conducted to describe the antifungal resistance of Candida species isolated from a tertiary hospital in Bacolod City, Philippines from July 2017 to July 2018. A total of 184 Candida species were isolated from clinical specimens with C. albicans (61%) having the highest frequency followed by C. t...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510075

A Risk Factor Analysis for MRSA Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia to Guide Empiric Therapy in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit

Megan E Feeney, PharmD, BCCCP, David E Lindsey. MD, Daniel E Vazquez, MD, Kyle Porter, MAS and Claire V Murphy, PharmD, BCPS, FCCM

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 05, 2019

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is increasing in prevalence. Treatment of VAP has moved toward ensuring patients are adequately covered for MRSA and other MDROs while balancing the need for antimicrobial stewardship and appropriateness of empiric coverage of these organisms in the setting of increasing resistance rates. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of and risk factors for MRSA VAP in surgical intensive care uni...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510074

Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of HIV among Pregnant Adolescents and Adolescent Mothers in the Kumbo West Health District of Cameroon

Frankline Sevidzem Wirsiy, Dickson Shey Nsagha, Omer Njajou and Joseph Besong Besong

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 18, 2109

This was an analytical cross sectional study among pregnant adolescents and adolescent mothers, carried out from April to May 2018 in the Kumbo West Health District (KWHD) of Cameroon. We used a multistage sampling design to select 6 health areas. In each of these 6 health areas selected, proportionate sampling method was employed to get 400 participants from the health areas. Data was collected using structured questionnaires and analysed using SPSS version 21. We adjusted for confounding varia...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510073

Zoonotic Antimicrobial Resistance as a Result of Iatrogenic Disease in Companion Animals - Case Study Reports

Elaine Meade, Mark Anthony Slattery and Mary Garvey

Article Type: March 15, 2019 | First Published: March 15, 2019

Iatrogenic disease represents an ongoing issue for veterinarians where animals manifest with secondary conditions as a result of medical treatment. Similarly, zoonotic disease and specifically resistant zoonotic pathogens represent an ongoing issue for public health safety. As an increasing number of zoonotic microbial species are being recognised as emerging and re-emerging diseases in humans, the issues relating to their antimicrobial resistance becomes more evident. This study reports on two ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510072

Incidence and Predictors of First Line Anti-Retroviral Therapy Failure among Adults Receiving HIV Care in North West Ethiopia: A Hospital-Based Follow-Up Study

Tsegaw Agezew, MSC, Abilo Tadesse, MD, Lemma Derseh, MPH and Mekonnen Yimer, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 14, 2019

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores immune function and reduces HIV-related adverse outcomes. Patients on ART are recommended to periodic monitoring to ensure effective and durable treatment outcomes. Treatment failure is the main indication for ART switching and assessed by criteria used to define virologic, immunologic or clinical failure. A retrospective follow up study was conducted from June 1, to August 30, 2018 to determine the incidence and associated factors with first line ART failur...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510071

Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Tunisia: Results of a Multicenter Study

Senda Mezghani Maalej, Jihene Jdidi Trabelsi, Gustave Claude-alexandre, Ilhem Boutiba, Maha Mastouri, Sophia Besbes, Farouk Barguellil, Frederic Laurent and Adnene Hammami

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 11, 2019

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a major cause of infections in hospital and community settings is a global health concern. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and the molecular characteristics of MRSA strains causing community-acquired (CA) and hospital-acquired (HA) infections in Tunisia. A total of 135 non-duplicate MRSA strains were consecutively collected from five Tunisian hospitals. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by disc...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510070

Distribution of Rotavirus Genotypes among Children with Diarrhea Prior to Vaccine Introduction in Western Kenya

John B Ochieng, Sammy Khagayi, Billy Ogwel, Reuben Onkoba, Evans Apondi, Jane Juma, Mapaseka Seheri, Ina Peenze, Clayton Onyango, Elizabeth Hunsperger, Collins Tabu, Sergon Kibet, Richard Omore, Frank Odhiambo, Jeffrey Mphahlele, Jennifer R Verani, Barry Fields, Godfrey Bigogo, Kayla F Laserson, Jacqueline E Tate, Jason M Mwenda and Robert F Breiman

Article Type: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: February 16, 2019

Group A rotavirus is the leading cause of diarrhea hospitalization among children worldwide. Most fatal rotavirus-associated diarrhea cases among children under 5 years occur in Africa and Asia. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of circulating rotavirus strains among children less than 5 years in western Kenya to provide baseline data on the prevalence of each genotype prior to the introduction of monovalent rotavirus vaccine in Kenya. From January 2010 to December 2013, stool samples w...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510069

Impact of Rapid Microorganism Identification Using Two Multiplex PCR Platforms on Timing of Antimicrobial Therapy

Natasha N Pettit, Zhe Han, Angella Charnot-Katsikas, Jennifer Pisano and Vera Tesic

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 11, 2019

Strategies to improve time to administration of appropriate, effective antimicrobial therapy can improve patient outcomes. We sought to retrospectively assess if the earlier identification of blood pathogens and their resistance determinants with multiplex PCR platforms could have an impact on time to initiate appropriate antimicrobial therapy. All patients with monomicrobial positive blood cultures from March to June 2013 were included in the retrospective chart review analysis. We evaluated th...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510068

High Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Central Nigeria

Peter Asaga Mac, Adamu Chipago Suleiman and Philomena Ehi Airiohuodion

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: January 30, 2019

A total of 200 pregnant women subjects were selected for this study to determine the sero-prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and assess the risk factors among pregnant women attending ante natal care at FMC, Keffi, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used for the data collection. Sera were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). The sero prevalence of HBV infection and its infectivity is high in Central Nigeria. This resear...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510067

Intraleukocytic Yeast Inclusions and Toxic Granulation Neutrophils on Peripheral Blood Smear: An Interesting Synergy between Hematology and Microbiology

Fabio Miglietta, Claudio Palumbo, Fernando Parente, Luciano Velardi, Rosella Matera, Luigi Conte, Michela Dargenio, Maurizio Quarta, Milva Maria Nuzzo, Nicola Di Renzo and Giambattista Lobreglio

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 18, 2019

The presence of yeast neutrophil inclusions was observed and discussed several times in other reports; moreover some works demonstrated how Toxic Granulation Neutrophils (TGNs) are especially helpful in predicting acute bacterial infection, while the development of candidaemia-related TGNs was rarely described and in-depth. We describe two occasional findings of neutrophil inclusions and marked TGNs respectively due to Candida tropicalis and Candida guillermondi on peripheral blood smear....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510066

Profile of Pathologies Diagnosed in Patients Hospitalized in a Ward of Infectious Diseases at the Era of HIV in Bamako, Mali West Africa

Cissoko Y, Traore F, Dicko MS, Konate I, Sidibe AF, Dembele JP, Fongoro S and Dao S

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 16, 2019

Infectious diseases remain major public health issues with their corollary of epidemic and endemic disease, principally in developing countries. In 2010, the number of infections diseases related deaths was estimated to 15 millions per year worldwide and the World Health Organization (WHO) fore-casts this number to 13 million in 2050. These various infectious diseases, from the most frequent like malaria to the less like neglected tropical diseases are a scourge for developing countries and are ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510065

Cost-Effectiveness Analyses of Different Vaccination Strategies to Reduce Pertussis among Infants in Sweden

Ellen Wolff, Bernice Aronsson, Markus Hultstrand and Lisa Brouwers

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 09, 2019

Pertussis is a drawn-out and troublesome respiratory disease. Infants have a greater burden of disease than older children and adults, and are more likely to suffer complications. New vaccination strategies need to be considered to reduce pertussis among infants. The aim of the study was to evaluate cost-effectiveness of three alternative vaccination strategies, in comparison with current vaccination schedule....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510064

Uncomplicated Malaria and Intestinal Helminth Co-Infections among Schoolchildren in Abobo District, Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire)

Kpongbo Etienne Angora, Vincent Djohan, Abibatou Konate, Pulcherie Christiane Kiki-Barro, Akoua Valerie Bedia-Tanoh, Kondo Fulgence Kassi, Abo Henriette Vanga-Bosson, Sebastien Miezan, Eby Herve Menan and William Yavo

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 04, 2019

Malaria and soil-transmitted helminth infections are morbidity causes in most tropical areas in the world. In Côte d'Ivoire, their association greats a major public health problem and their coexistence is the subject of very few studies. The current study investigated uncomplicated malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among schoolchildren in Abobo District, Abidjan. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 256 children aged 2 to 15 recruited at the Anonkoua - Kouté Urban and Comm...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510063

Evaluation of Cases with Gemella Infection: Cross-Sectional Study

Selcuk Nazik, Esma Cingoz, Ahmet Riza Sahin and Selma Ates

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 19, 2018

Gemella is a Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccus bacterium. It is a member of the normal flora and rarely causes infection. This study aims at evaluating, accompanied by the literature, Gemella-associated infections that are also present in the normal flora. This study is a cross-sectional study. Gemella infections recorded in 2014-2018 in University Hospital, Turkey. Gemella is a Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccus bacterium. It is parti...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510062

Clostridium difficile in Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patients

Jennifer E MacDonald, Ashley E Glode and Luciano J Costa

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 15, 2018

Diarrhea is a common complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) due to multiple etiologies, including toxicity from the conditioning regimen and Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection. We hypothesized that C. difficile infection is uncommon in recipients of autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT) and testing for C. difficile is over utilized at our institution. We performed a retrospective, single center analysis of the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for C. difficile a...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510061

Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Causing Bloodstream Infection from Six Tertiary Hospitals in Beijing, China

Yanning Ma, Jie Liu, Chunmei Bao, Xiuhong Hao, Jingui Cao, Yan Wang and Jiyong Yang

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 14, 2018

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most prevalent pathogens in China. However, little is known about the prevalence of clinical P. aeruginosa isolates causing bloodstream infections (BSIs) in China. BSI-causing P. aeruginosa (BSI-PA) was collected from six tertiary-care hospitals in Beijing. Genetic relatedness was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by agar dilution method, and sequence types (STs) were evaluated by multilocu...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510060

Tigecycline Induced Cholestatic Liver Injury: A Case Report

Jing Liang, Kai Zhao, Liqin Zhu and Yihe Liu

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 26, 2018

A 41-year-old female patient received tigecycline because of abdominal infection caused by carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) after performing cholangiolithotomy by the endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP). Subsequently she developed cholestatic liver injury as substantiated by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin. Tigecycline was switched to dual carbapenems. Her liver function tests improved. We suggest that bilirubin levels should be cared in pat...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510059

Patient-Centered MDR-TB Care: What do MDR-TB Patients in Urban and Rural Peru Say?

Sangeeta Mookherji and Kei Alegria-flores

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 05, 2018

Controlling multidrug and extremely drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) poses a grave challenge to public health, globally. Studies repeatedly show that effective M/XDR-TB management goes beyond strategies recommended in global TB control plans, uniformly pointing to patient-centred care as critical to progress in controlling the epidemic. We aim to describe patient-centred care in M/XDR-TB management in Peru, which presented a context where M/XDR-TB remains a persistent problem, even with in...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510058

Syphilis: A Tricky Disease that may Pose Some Diagnostic Challenges - A Case Report

Norberto Sugaya and Dante Migliari

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 24, 2018

This article reports a case of secondary stage syphilis involving the oral mucosa and the skin (the palms). The lesion's clinical aspects of both sites could possibly be misdiagnosed for some common inflammatory diseases, among them oral lichenoid contact lesion or drug reaction. As a standard procedure, the differential diagnosis required to rule out syphilis. The treponemal and anti-treponemal tests confirmed the diagnosis of syphilis. The patient was successfully treated, but, unfortunately, ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510057

A Review on Sheeppox and Goatpox: Insight of Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment and Control Measures in Ethiopia

Takele Tesgera Hurisa, Zhizhong Jing, Huaijie Jia, Guohua Chen and Xiao-Bing He

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 29, 2018

Sheeppox and goatpox are caused by a genus of Capripox virus causing a severe problem and great economic loss in Ethiopia and also in sheep and goat rearing countries in many parts of the world. The objective of this review is to give insight on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and control measures of sheeppox and goatpox disease. Generally, the disease is less commonly seen in indigenous breeds in area where it is endemic as compared to exotic breeds. Mostly the disease is transmitted by dire...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510056

Digital Surveillance and Communication Strategies to Infectious Diseases of Poverty Control and Elimination in Africa

Ernest Tambo, Shang Xia, Xin-Yu Feng and Zhou Xiao-Nong

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 23, 2018

Investing in digital technologies to support health-based research, modelling and planning, preparedness and timely effective response, and long-term management benefits has been recognized in improving epidemiological analysis, disease prevention, control to elimination, health education and promotion. This paper provides valuable insights and approaches for public health in collection, analysis, interpretation, use and dissemination of health surveillance data, resource allocation, for guiding...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510055

Cerebro-Meningeal Tuberculosis in HIV-Negative Adults

Guenifi Wahiba, Gasmi Abdelkader, Boukhrissa Houda, Rais Mounira, Hachani Abderahmen, Ouyahia Amel, Mechakra Saleh and Lacheheb Abdelmadjid

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 26, 2018

Tuberculosis remains a public health problem worldwide. Neurological localization is the most severe manifestation of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis characterized by a high mortality rate and a high rate of sequelae among survivors; its diagnosis is hampered by the absence of rapid and accurate tools, therefore it is often evoked and treated on presumption arguments. The aim of this study is to assess the epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, treatment, and outcome features in patients with cereb...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510054

New Perspectives of HCV Infection: Focus on New Treatment Agents and Comorbidity Status, a Short Review

Huang Yu-Fen and Su Hui-Chen

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: July 23, 2018

Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is one of the main leading causes of mortality associated with liver disease worldwide. Different predominant modes of transmission in the local area play an important role for the disease burden. Several cofactors are identified to accelerate the disease progression. Besides, several comorbidities are common in patients with CHC and also have poor response to the traditional combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) treatment....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510053

Common Pathophysiological Pathways for Apical and Upper Lobe Lung Disease

Aaron R Casha, Alexander Manche, Marilyn Gauci, Andre Navarro and Emanuel Farrugia

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 20, 2018

The pathophysiological factors that make the upper lobe "vulnerable" to various different pathologies are additive, and not mutually exclusive. They include a tall, thin body habitus with an antero-posteriorly flattened chest as associated with a low BMI, compounded by the poor apical blood supply and concomitant limited lymphatic drainage, possibly accentuated by a physically tall lung and a deep first rib furrow that makes the apex appear prominent....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510052

Impact of the Biomechanical 'Pleural Stress' Pressure Vessel Hypothesis on the Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis: Predictors of TB Reactivation and its Application to TB Screening

Aaron R Casha, Roberto Caruana-Gauci, Alexander Manche, Marilyn Gauci, Ruben Gatt, Hannah-Marie Casha-Gauci and Joseph N Grima

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 15, 2018

A hypothesis for the pathogenesis of pulmonary TB is presented based on the biomechanics of pleural stress in the context of the lung as a pressure vessel. This hypothesis modelled pleural stress as a marker of pleural tissue destruction and subsequent repair. It identified five predictors of TB reactivation, namely adolescent and young adult age, male gender, apical location, low antero-posterior chest diameter or low thoracic-index rib-cage shape and the presence of pre-existing apical blebs.....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510051

Assessment of Systemic Fungal Infections among Diabetic Patients in Enugu, Nigeria

Theophilus Kachi Udeani, Victoria Nneka Asogwa and Uche Ezenwaka

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: June 15, 2018

Opportunistic invasive fungal infections are emerging health challenges worldwide, especially among immunocompromised hosts. This study investigated systemic fungal infections in diabetic patients. The diabetic patients were recruited from the Diabetic Clinics; Enugu State University Teaching Hospital Parklane, Enugu. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on the demographic and risk factors from the subjects....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510050

Effect of Infection Prevention and Control Measures on the Length of Hospital Stay of Patients at Lebanese Hospitals

Ahmad Dimassi, Katia Iskandar, Roula Matta, Nathalie Lahoud, Pierre Abi Hanna, Mira Jbeily and Pascale Salameh

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 07, 2018

Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) measures are related to medical practices that prevent or minimize spreading of infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of IPC measures on the length of hospital stay (LOS) of patients in infectious diseases service at Lebanese hospitals....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510049

Epidemiological Markers for HIV Infection among First-Time Antenatal Attendees in Sierra Leone: 2012-2015 Longitudinal Study

Jia Bainga Kangbai, Isata Victoria Mandoh, Matilda King, Josephine Alpha Rogers and Sulaiman Lansanah Mandoh

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: March 31, 2018

Globally it is estimated that 10% of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected patients are coinfected with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) which is the leading cause of chronic liver diseases including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In countries with high HBV endemicity the seroprevalence rate can be as high as 25% with approximately 10% of the HIV infected population coinfected with HBV....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510048

Tinea Capitis: Unusual Chronic Presentation in an Elderly Woman

Elizabeth Salazar, Daniel Asz-Sigall, Diana Vega and Roberto Arenas

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 31, 2018

Tinea capitis is a superficial fungal infection of the scalp and hair caused by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton and Microsporum. Tinea capitis is very rare in adults, and may affect those with immunosuppressive diseases or menopausal elderly women. Clinical manifestations along with trichoscopy and Wood’s light, can help the clinician to determine the correct diagnosis, in order to reduce irreversible sequelae and decrease multiple contagion....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510047

A Survey of Antimicrobial Agents Usage in Poultry Farms and Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia Coli and Staphylococci Isolates from the Poultry in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Joshua Awogbemi, Moses Adeyeye and Ezekiel Olugbenga Akinkunmi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 24, 2018

Compared to other livestock, domestic fowls are much more commonly reared and consumed in Nigeria. The emergence of serious live-threatening infections from veterinary sources and treatment failures occurring with the available antibiotics warrants investigation into the use of antimicrobial agents in poultry farms and how they contribute to the menace of antibiotic resistance. The main aim of this study was to investigate the use of antimicrobial agents in poultry farms by poultry farmers in Il...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510046

Three Novel Acinetobacter baumannii Plasmid Replicase-Homology Groups Inferred from the Analysis of a Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strain Isolated in Argentina

María M Cameranesi, Adriana S Limansky, Jorgelina Moran-Barrio, Guillermo D Repizo and Alejandro M Viale

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 06, 2017

Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen responsible for a variety of nosocomial infections. Its success in the hospital environment obeys to multiple causes, among them, the ability to resist antimicrobial compounds. It can rapidly evolve Multidrug Resistance (MDR) when confronted with antibiotic therapy....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510045

Quality of Perioperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis in a Community Hospital in Western Qatar

H Guanche Garcell, Ariadna Villanueva Arias and RA Nonato Alfonso

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 25, 2017

Descriptive study was carried out in a 75-bed public hospital in Western Qatar. The study included the patients underwent selected procedures who required antibiotic prophylaxis from Jan-2013 to June 2016. Data was collected by the infection control practitioner....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510044

Risk of Severe Influenza Infection: Hypercytokinemia Gene Polymorphisms and Related Plasma Proteome in Canadian Young Adults

Sirbarinder Bryn Dhir, Ahmed El-Sohemy and Alaa Badawi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 13, 2017

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes influencing hypercytokinemia have been implicated in the clinical manifestations of severe influenza infection. Genotype-phenotype studies in healthy subjects may help to identify biomarkers of early prediction for severe disease outcome....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510043

Applied Medical Mathematical Modelling Technique for Epidemiology Approach for New Emerging Infection

Viroj Wiwanitkit

Article Type: editorial | First Published: November 08, 2017

Infection is the common pathology in medicine. The new emerging infection is the present problem worldwide. Within the past few years, there are several new emerging infections. The diseases are usually problematic and need good management and control....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510042

Cerebral Aspergillosis in a Patient with p-ANCA Vasculitis: Serial Imaging Observation over 15 Months

Mei Chen Chen, Che Kim Tan and Wen Liang Yu

Article Type: letter to the editor | First Published: November 06, 2017

Aspergillosis is well known in a patient with perinuclear Antineutrophilic Cytoplasmic Antibody (p-ANCA)-associated vasculitis and pulmonary renal syndromes....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510041

Cytomegalovirus Pneumonia Rather Than Pneumocystis Pneumonia in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Contributor or Bystander?

Hsin-Ju Tang and Wen-Liang Yu

Article Type: Editor | First Published: October 26, 2017

This is a 45-year-old man, who has been working in China for several years and denied any systemic diseases before. He has suffered from the right axillary mass for 3 weeks, which was film and associated with mild tenderness. He was admitted to the Hematology department of the hospital on May 1, 2017. The Computed Tomography (CT) scan from neck to the chest showed a large enhancing mass over right axillary area, favoring lymphoma or metastatic lymphadenopathy....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510040

A Study on the Origin of Bovine Rotavirus Strains Detected from the Children of the Nasu District, Tochigi, Japan

Kei Numazaki and Maho Ichikawa

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 28, 2017

Serious gastrointestinal infection of Rotavirus (RV) is usually prevalent during winter months and often seen in infants and young children. Studies on genotypes of prevalent rotavirus strains are quite important for preventing infection, developing vaccines, and its evaluation....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510039

Serotyping Toxoplasma Gondii: A Cross-Sectional Study in Uruguay

Susana Sousa, Andres Puime, Jose Manuel Correia da Costa and Marie-Laure Darde

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 23, 2017

Toxoplasma gondii genotypes display high genetic diversity in South America with levels of diversity not yet seen in Europe. Indeed, highly virulent strains even for immunocompetent humans have been described. However, limited or no information appears to be available dealing with strains of T. gondii circulating in Uruguay....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510038

Cytomegalovirus Infection of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Soweto, South Africa: A Look Back at the Clinical and Histological Features over 8 Years

Reena Dhansukh Mohanlal and Alan Karstaedt

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 26, 2017

Despite the widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. CMV gastrointestinal tract infection is poorly described. This retrospective study was undertaken to describe the clinical and histological features of biopsy confirmed CMV infection of the gastrointestinal tract in a large teaching hospital with a high prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510037

An Outcome Evaluation of a Standardized Computerized Prescriber Protocol for the Management of Clostridium Difficile Colitis in a Teaching Tertiary Care Facility

Linda Nwachukwu, Courtney Armstrong, Zachary Mulkey, Kristen Fuhrmann and Charles F Seifert

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 20, 2017

Clostridium Difficile Infection (CDI) continues to be the leading cause of healthcare-associated infectious colitis in the United States, replacing oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common cause of healthcare-associated infection....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510036

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Hepatitis B: A Survey among the Internet Users in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Abubaker Ibrahim Elbur, Nawaf Almalki, Abdualziz Alghamdi and Housain A Alqarni Alqarni

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 01, 2017

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is an important and serious global health problem. Despite the fact that there is a decrease in the prevalence rate of HBV infection in Saudi Arabia, but still it causes significant morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to measure the level of knowledge and to identify attitude and practice on HBV....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510035

Maternal and Fetal Death after Dengue Infection: Insights on Dengue Diagnosis

Christiane Fernandes Ribeiro, Ana Carla Gomes Soares, Vania Gloria Silami Lopes, Patricia Brasil, Ana Maria Bispo De Filippis, Priscila Conrado Guerra Nunes and Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 17, 2017

Dengue Virus (DENV) is an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus and has four antigenically distinct serotypes (DENV 1-4). Brazil is considered hyperendemic for dengue, and all serotypes have been identified....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510034

Needlestick Injury among Medical Students in an Australian University

Brahmaputra Marjadi, John Doan Nguyen, Peter Hoppett and Mary-Louise McLaws

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 16, 2017

Needlestick Injuries (NSI) commonly occurs in the hospital setting. Medical students are at risk of NSI due to lack of clinical experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and knowledge, attitudes, awareness and practices of NSI among medical students at an Australian university....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510033

Nocardia Mastoiditis in an Immunocompromised Patient

Sydney Marsh, Felicia Ratnaraj, Roy Norris, Jason Gass and Renuga Vivekanandan

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 08, 2017

Nocardia, a gram positive bacteria, is found primarily in the immunocompromised population. We present a case of nocardia causing mastoiditis in a patient with a history of recurrent otitis media, with a focus on appropriate treatment selection. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510032

Detection of Human Papillomavirus among Patients with Clinically Diagnosed Cutaneous Warts by PCR Method

Yang Yang, Hexiao Wang, Xinrui Zhang, Wei Huo, Ruiqun Qi, Xiaodong Li and Xing-Hua Gao

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 20, 2017

Human cutaneous warts are prevalent worldwide and are caused by Human Papillomavirus. Most cutaneous warts can be clinically diagnosed without any auxiliary examination, but additional tests are required to confirm the infection of Human Papillomavirus in some atypical cases. The aim of this study was to measure the applicability of HPV DNA detection in cutaneous warts in a clinical setting....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510031

Prevalence, Predictors and Treatment Outcome of Type 2 Diabetes among Newly Diagnosed Sputum Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Western Cameroon

Leonard Sama Fonkeng, Innocent Mbulli Ali, Michel Noubom, Roland Bamou, Assoua HSR Sterve, Ayuk Leo, JR Kuiate and Christopher B Tume

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 21, 2017

There is a growing awareness on a global scale on the possible relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM). We conducted a prospective study in sputum positive pulmonary TB patients in two TB management clinics in Bamenda and Bafoussam in the North West and West regions of Cameroon respectively to determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, associated risk factors and the impact of diabetes in the treatment outcome....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510030

Inverse Correlation between 25-OH Vitamin D Levels and Severity of Viral Respiratory Illness in Infants

Mary Fairchok, Christina Schofield, Wei-Ju Chen, Mary Pugh, Hugh Bigg, John C Arnold and Eugene V Millar

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 17, 2017

25-OH vitamin D levels above 30 ng/mL activate HCAP-18, which impacts the immune response to respiratory viruses. While emerging data suggests a link between low levels of 25-OH vitamin D and an increased incidence of respiratory infections, the relationship between these levels and severity of infection is unknown. We hypothesized that infants with insufficient 25-OH vitamin D levels would have more severe viral respiratory infections....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510029

Molecular Identification of Trypanosome Species in Cattle of the Mikumi Human/Livestock/Wildlife Interface Areas, Tanzania

Narcisa L Nhamitambo, Sharadhuli I Kimera and Paul S Gwakisa

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 07, 2017

Trypanosomosis is a major neglected disease of animals and man that causes great negative socio-economic impact in many African countries. It is caused by protozoan parasites of the blood from the genus Trypanosoma. Previous studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of trypanosomosis in Tanzania, but none has been done in the human/livestock/wildlife interface areas of Mikumi National Park....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510028

Features and Prognostic Factors of Tuberculous Meningitis in a Tertiary Hospital in Malaysia

Chia Peck Kee, Petrick Periyasamy, Zhe Kang Law, Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim, Wan Nur Nafisah WanYahya, Hazlina Mahadzir, Shahrul Azmin Md Rani, Ramesh Sahathevan, Rabani Remli, Raymond Azman Ali, Hui Jan Tan, Syazarina Sharis Osman, Shahizon Azura Mohamed Mukari and Shamsul Azhar Shah

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 17, 2017

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) has been one of the major extrapulmonary manifestation with high morbidity and mortality. This paper aims to study the clinical features, prognostic factors and clinical outcome of TBM in a local tertiary hospital. This was an observational study on TBM in patients who were diagnosed in a local tertiary hospital....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510027

A Meta-Analysis of Directly Observed Treatment vs. Self- Administered Therapy Outcomes in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

Ardigleusa Alves Coêlho, Ricardo Ney Oliveira Cobucci, Emannuela Maria Nunes Freitas, Paulo Henrique Lima, Ewerton Willian Gomes Brito, Tânia Maria Ribeiro Monteiro de Figueiredo, Ana Katherine da Silveira Gonçalves and Severina Alice da Costa Uchoa

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 10, 2017

A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted in order to compare the effectiveness of directly observed therapy, short-course (DOTS) with self-administered treatment (SAT) in people with pulmonary tuberculosis. PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and the Scielo/Lilacs were searched for studies published between 1 January 1965 and 31 December 2013....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510026

Building Surveillance Capacity: Lessons Learned from a Ten Year Experience

Pamela J Kennedy, Sajata Outin, Tomas R Rodriguez, Lauren Polansky, Margaret McCarron and Karen R Siener, Ann C Moen

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 08, 2017

As Global Health Security partners endeavor to support capacity building globally, it is important to examine prior efforts for building surveillance and laboratory systems for emerging infectious diseases. CDC provides financial support and technical assistance to foreign governments for the development or improvement of influenza surveillance networks in over fifty countries through cooperative agreements....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510025

The Intestinal Microbial Community and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Hubert E Blum

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 06, 2017

Based on molecular, genetic, epigenetic, biochemical and microbiological analyses it is increasingly possible to identify individual disease-related characteristics that define disease pathogenesis, disease disposition or prognosis as well as the efficacy of therapeutic strategies (personalized medicine/precision medicine')....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510024

Preliminary Studies of Edible Bird Nest (EBN) Extract Reduced H1N1 Virus Induced Apoptosis on Cultured Cells-In Vitro

Nur Ain A, Abdul Rahman O and Aini I

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: February 28, 2017

The virus infection result in apoptosis of cells included mechanisms to inhibit apoptosis. It seems that both cellular and viral factors are involved depending on types of cells. Edible bird nest (EBN) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that contained various bioactive compounds with health benefits in human. ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510023

Bluetongue in Morocco 2004 to 2015: An Overview

Lhor Youssef, Kyriaki Nomikou, Khayli Mounir, Bouslikhane Mohammed, Fassi Fihri Ouafaa and El Harrak Mehdi

Article Type: Overview | First Published: February 18, 2017

Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious, arthropod borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. BT is a notifiable disease of huge socio-economic concern and of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products. Due to the segmented nature of genome, there is existence of high diversity in BT virus serotypes too as a consequence of genetic reassortments....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510022

Alternative Methods for Treating MRSA-Colonized and Infected Patients: Bacteriophages, Inhibitors of Wall Teichoic Acid Biosynthesis and Cultures of Not Drug-Resistant Staphylococcus Epidermidis

Felix-Martin Werner and Rafael Covenas

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2016

The colonization and infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a health problem of major importance in hospitals and long-term care facilities. Active decolonization measures are performed in MRSA-colonized patients; infections caused by MRSA are treated with vancomycin and other reserve antibiotics. The administration of bacteriophages could prevent the formation of MRSA biofilms....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510021

Epidemiology of Zoonotic Diseases in the United States: A Comprehensive Review

Adekunle Sanyaolu, Chuku Okorie, Nasima Mehraban, Oladapo Ayodele, Sarah K Tshitenge, Rochelle Knox, Elda Mullaj, Aaron Nandzo, Ayman El-Samman, Steven Neshewat and Sinthy Vivek

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 15, 2016

Zoonotic diseases or infections (Zoonoses) are ailments that are naturally transmitted from animals to humans (or vice versa). These diseases are transmitted either by the consumption of contaminated food and water, exposure to the pathogen during preparation, processing or by direct contact with infected animals or humans. Zoonotic diseases have a significant effect on public health worldwide, showing a higher incidence rate in developing countries due to lack of control strategies, as well as ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510020

Prevalence and Characteristics of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Adult Sickle Cell Disease Patients Living in France

Jean-Benoit Arlet, Cloe Comarmond, Anoosha Habibi, Katia Stankovic, Jean-Antoine Ribeil, Marilucy Lopez Sublet, Louis Affo, Christelle Chantalat Auger, Marie-Anne Bouldouyre, Justine Gellen-Dautremer, Sylvain Le Jeune, Elena Fois, Latifatou Boukari, Veronique Perronne, Denis Vincent, Jacques Pouchot, Djamal Khimoud, Francois Lionnet and Patrice Cacoub

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 14, 2016

The relationship between HCV infection and complications of sickle cell disease SCD has not been reported. To determine prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in adult patients with SCD, and to analyze the relationship between HCV infection and SCD complications. A total of 267 SCD patients were included. A standardized questionnaire was filled out, including history and complications of SCD, and the status and main characteristics of HCV infection....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510019

Antiretroviral Therapy Utilization in the Intensive Care Unit

Mia N Barnes, Monika N Daftary, Mary K Maneno and Faria F Farhat

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: November 14, 2016

Although clinical advances have been demonstrated through the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the management of an HIV infected patient within the intensive care unit (ICU) has been a topic of controversy due to the lack of evidence-based clinical guidelines to assist in the management of HIV patients admitted to the intensive care unit. The objective of this study was to examine ART utilization in the medical ICU and to assess relationships between therapy, clinical characteristics and mor...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510018

Effectiveness of SP-IPTp for Malaria and Evidence for the Need of T. Gondii Infection Preventive Policy during Pregnancy in Ghana

Reginald Arthur-Mensah Jnr, Emmanuel Awusah Blay, Irene Ayi, John Larbi, Takashi Suzuki and Nobuo Ohta

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: September 13, 2016

Malaria and toxoplasmosis during pregnancy are each reported to cause severe negative consequences in both mother and child. In Ghana, efforts are ongoing to control malaria from all facets but there is no such effort yet for control of toxoplasmosis. In this study, we sought to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium spp and T. gondii infections in mothers at delivery and their neonates in a malaria holo-endemic area where Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine intermittent preventive therapy for malaria in ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510017

Lemierre's Syndrome without Internal Jugular Vein Thrombophlebitis: A Diagnostic Conundrum

Gbolahan O Ogunbayo, Josephine Adunse, Odunayo Olorunfemi and Nashwa Abdulsalam

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 16, 2016

A previously healthy 23-year-old male presented with fever and shortness of breath. His illness initially started six days before presentation with a sore throat. Two days later he developed fevers with associated chills, rigors, and night sweats. He also complained of myalgias, non-productive cough, a right-sided chest pain, and shortness of breath on exertion, as well as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. His symptoms continued to worsen until he became dyspneic at rest and was br...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510016

A Systematic Review of Efficacy Outcomes Reported from Clinical Trials Evaluating Vaccine Candidates Targeting Plasmodium Falciparum

James D MacKinnon

Article Type: Systematic Review | First Published: August 15, 2016

Malaria remains one of the most destructive communicable diseases worldwide. In the campaign towards global malaria eradication, the development of effective vaccinees has become paramount with the emergence of anti-malarial drug resistance to primary treatment and prophylactic regimens. Of particular focus are vaccinees specific to Plasmodium falciparum....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510015

Dengue Fever: Historical Perspective and the Global Response

Tyler Warkentien and Rebecca Pavlicek

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 02, 2016

Dengue fever remains an important mosquito-borne viral illness resulting in substantial human and economic costs. Despite rising incidence rates in recent decades, there is cause for hope, particularly in light of recent advancements in dengue vaccine and vector control research. This article reviews past dengue control efforts and discusses current and future strategies for dengue control....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510014

Essential Transition Metal Ion Complexation as a Strategy to Improve the Antimicrobial Activity of Organic Drugs

Graciela Borthagaray, Melina Mondelli and Maria H Torre

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 02, 2016

In order to maintain the capacity to treat infections it is necessary to adopt strategies for the development of new drugs. The use of metal ions in medicine for their antimicrobial effects was prevalent for many years before the advent of antibiotics. During the second half of the twentieth century, active metal complexes with different chemical, physicochemical and biochemical properties than the constituents reborn by the threat posed by microbial multidrug resistance....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510013

Tuberculosis Control in Jiangsu Province, China

Li Yan, Zhu Limei, Cheng Chen, Lu Wei, Booker G.W, Yu Hao and Polyak S.W

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 02, 2016

Tuberculosis (TB) has been a major health problem for thousands of years. It took almost 200 years after the discovery of the disease in early 1689 to identify the causative pathogen, namely Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Robert Koch who was awarded a Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1905 for his work in this area. Currently, TB is a global pandemic that outranks HIV-AIDS and malaria as the leading cause of death by infectious disease. In 1993 the World Health Organization declared TB a g...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510012

Resistance Profile of Mycobacteria Isolated from Patients Undergoing Retreatment in Senegal

Mouhamadou Lamine Dia, Sow AI, Cisse MF, Gueye Pal, Ba F, Cisse NN, Balde O, Diouf B and Sarr M

Article Type: Short Note | First Published: April 01, 2016

Resistance to anti-tuberculosis medication is a major public health problem worldwide and Senegal is not spared. Indeed, the WHO reported 13,186 cases of tuberculosis in Senegal (including new cases and relapses) for 2013, 2.1% of which were multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among new cases and 17% in retreatment patients. Elsewhere in the world, the WHO estimates the number of people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) at around 2 billion and the number of cases o...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510011

Fluorescent DNA Aptamer-Magnetic Bead Sandwich Assays and Portable Fluorometer for Sensitive and Rapid Foodborne Pathogen Detection and Epidemiology

John G. Bruno, Taylor Phillips, Alicia M. Richarte, Tiffany Montez, Adrian Garcia and Jeffrey C. Sivils

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 28. 2016

This report extends fluorescent DNA aptamer-magnetic bead-based sandwich assays developed and published for ultrasensitive detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Listeria monocytogenes by adding prototype assays for pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shiga-like toxin-1 and Salmonella enterica. These tests are assessed by a highly portable fluorometer, thus enabling on-site detection and tracking or epidemiology of major foodborne pathogen outbreaks potentially from "farm to fork"....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510010

Prevalence of β-Lactamase Positive Ampicillin Resistant H. Influenzae from Children of Bangladesh

Harunur Rashid, Shereen Shoma and Mahbubur Rahman

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 26, 2016

A total of 255 NPS specimens were collected from every seventh of 1786 children with meningitis (n = 293) and pneumonia (n = 1493). One hundred and twenty one (47.5%) H. influenzae were isolated from 255 NPS specimens. Among 121 isolates, 15 (38%) were recovered from meningitis compared to 106 (49%) from pneumonia cases (P < 0.3). Fifteen percent of isolates (18/121) were serotype b (Hib) and the rest were non-Hib....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510009

Development of Teicoplanin Tolerance by Staphylococcus epidermidis and Increased Susceptibility to Bacteriophage Type 92 by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Polymicrobial Biofilms

Jon M Riggs, Robert JC McLean, Rodney E Rohde and Gary M Aron

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 29, 2016

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a commensal commonly found in polymicrobial biofilms with Staphylococcus aureus. Given the increasing drug resistance in Staphylococci, we explored combination therapy with teicoplanin and bacteriophage type 92 (Siphoviridae) on the survival and antibiotic tolerance of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and S. epidermidis to teicoplanin and bacteriophage in 48-h pure and mixed culture biofilms....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510008

Assessment of Parent-Adolescent Communication on HIV/AIDS Prevention in Kemebata Temebaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Fiseha Lemango, Terefe Gone, Yohannes H/Michael and Shimeles Ololo

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 29, 2016

HIV/AIDS has significantly affected the well-being of adolescents and has posed serious concern for their parents. Parent-adolescent communication on HIV/AIDS is a key tool to prevent and control the disease among young people. However, information about parental involvement on adolescent HIV prevention activities is scarce in Ethiopia in general and in the study area in particular....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510007

Legionella's Pneumoniae: A New Outbreak in Spain and Urinary Antigen Test Review

Soraya Jodra Sanchez, Jacinto Ramos Gonzalez, Maria Teresa Santos Jimenez, Rosa Cordovilla Perez, Jose Maria Gonzalez Ruiz, Ana Maria Sanchez Hernandez, Sergio Cadenas Menendez and Miguel Barrueco Ferrero

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: February 27, 2016

Since the microorganism Legionella pneumophila (Lp) was identified during an American Legion Convention in Philadelphia in 1976, it has been recognised as a common cause of both extra- and intra-hospital pneumonia [1]. The incidence of community-associated pneumonia (CAP) due to Lp varies widely from one area to another, hovering around 1% in subjects treated on an outpatient basis and 15-28% in hospitalised patients. Of these, approximately a quarter require admission to an intensive care unit ...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510006

The Role of Procalcitonin as a Biomarker in Sepsis

Bethel Shiferaw, Ebisa Bekele, Krishan Kumar, Anthony Boutin and Marianne Frieri

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 11, 2016

Sepsis and its complications are one of the leading causes of mortality. Timely diagnosis and treatment is highly important in reducing the morbidity and mortality. Serum biomarkers may aid in the early diagnosis of sepsis and therapeutic intervention. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a peptide precursor of the hormone calcitonin and its primary trigger is infection. PCT is identified as part of the complex pro-inflammatory response of the innate immune system....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510005

Risk Factors Sexual Behaviour and C. trachomatis Infection among Health Sciences University Students in Lisbon

Zuzeca Magalhaes, Rita Castro and Filomena Martins Pereira

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: January 09, 2016

Individuals between 15 and 24 years of age are at higher risk of acquiring Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The objectives of this study were to describe risk taking sexual behaviour and the presence of C. trachomatis in health sciences university students in Lisbon....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510004

Incidence of Hospital Acquired Multidrug Resistant Organisms in a Tertiary Care Facility

Kamran Baig, Shaikh Muhammad Saif Din, Noura A Elkhizzi and Daifallah J Al Nakhli

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: November 18, 2015

Background: Irrational use of antimicrobials and gaps in infection control practices have resulted in alarmingly high prevalence of multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO) globally. The objective of our study was to highlight the incidence of hospital acquired MDROs in our facility. Method: A retrospective analysis of surveillance data collected from January - December 2013 in a tertiary care hospital of Saudi Arabia. The Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC) surveillance definitions were...

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510003

HIV-1 Prevention and Cure: Where Do We Stand?

Marc P Girard

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: September 28, 2015

As of 2014, UNAIDS estimated that some 35 million people were living with HIV-1 worldwide, of whom more than 25 million were in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is no doubt that the use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in a preventative manner has allowed to at least partially limit the extension of the disease. The best example is the major success that was achieved with the implementation of ART in HIV-1-infected pregnant mothers to prevent the infection of their baby....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510002

Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Isolates Features from Natural Foci of Pribaikalie (Eastern Siberia, Russia)

Adelshin RV, Melnikova OV, Trushina Yu N and Andaev EI

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: August 28, 2015

Pribaikalie is a mountainous area in the South of Eastern Siberia that borders Lake Baikal between the Irkutsk Region and the Republic of Buryatia. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic to the area. Human cases occur usually within regional centers (Irkutsk and Ulan-Ude) and large industrial centers (Bratsk, Angarsk, Cheremkhovo), where the majority of the population is concentrated....

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510001

Factors Associated with Changes in HIV-Testing Uptake among Young Women (15-24 Years) in Tanzania: Analysis of 2003-04, 2007-08 and 2011-12 Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey

Michael J. Mahande, Habib O. Ramadhani and Rune N. Phimemon

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 16, 2015

HIV counselling and testing (HTC) is an integral component of HIV preventive strategies. Despite an increase in the number of HTC sites, HIV testing uptake among young women in Tanzania is relatively low compared to other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to explore the factors associated with changes in HIV testing uptake using Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Surveys of 2003-04, 2007-08 and 2011-12....


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ClinMed Journals Index Copernicus Values

Clinical Medical Image Library: 93.51

International Journal of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine: 92.83

International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine: 91.84

International Journal of Womens Health and Wellness: 91.79

Journal of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Treatment: 91.73

Journal of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology: 91.55

Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology: 91.55

Clinical Medical Reviews and Case Reports: 91.40

International Archives of Nursing and Health Care: 90.87

International Journal of Ophthalmology and Clinical Research: 90.80

International Archives of Urology and Complications: 90.73

Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Renal Care: 90.33

Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention: 89.99

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Treatment: 89.54

Journal of Dermatology Research and Therapy: 89.34

International Journal of Clinical Cardiology: 89.24

International Journal of Radiology and Imaging Technology: 88.88

Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews: 88.42

International Journal of Blood Research and Disorders: 88.22

International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research: 87.97

New Issues


International Journal of Clinical Cardiology

ISSN: 2378-2951 | ICV: 89.24

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Obstetrics and Gynaecology Cases - Reviews

ISSN: 2377-9004 | ICV: 88.42

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Journal of Hypertension and Management

ISSN: 2474-3690 | ICV: 87.69

VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 1 | 2021


International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research

ISSN: 2377-3634 | ICV: 87.97

VOLUME 8 | ISSUE 2 | 2021


Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

ISSN: 2474-3658 | ICV: 91.55

VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 4 | 2021