Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology is an open access, peer reviewed journal that publishes information on clinical, preventative, curative and social aspects of Transmittable diseases. The main objective of the journal is to set a forum for publication, education, and exchange of opinions, and to promote research and publications globally. The Journal provides a platform for all clinicians, surgeons and health professionals to contribute their findings and help raise awareness among community in various infectious diseases and its epidemiology. We aim to provide free, immediate and unlimited access to highest quality clinical content via open access platform.

Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology focus on discovery and innovation in various aspects of Airborne Disease, Biological Contamination, Blood-borne Disease, Clinical Bacteriology, Clinical Mycology, Clinical Virology, Coinfection, Copenhagen Consensus, Disease Diffusion Mapping, Emerging Diseases, Epidemics, Foodborne Illness, Globalization and Disease, Human Microbiome Project, Infection Control, Infectious Disease Dynamics, Infectious Disease Eradication, Medical Bioinformatics for Infectious Diseases, Neglected Diseases, Nosocomial Infection, Pandemics, Pathology, Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeler, Threshold Host Density, Tropical Disease, Waterborne Diseases, Zoonotic Infections, etc. Original Article, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Short Communications, Case Reports, Perspectives/Opinions, Letters, Short Note and Commentaries are accepted for publication. All articles published in the journal are subject to a rigorous peer review process. It encourages authors to publish their experimental and theoretical results in detail to disseminate the updated research findings.

 
Journal Information

Title: Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

ISSN: 2474-3658

NLM title abbreviation: J Infect Dis Epidemiol

ISO abbreviation: J Infect Dis Epidemiol

Other titles: JIDE

Category: Infectious

DOI: 10.23937/2474-3658

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

Contact email: contact@clinmedjournals.org

 
Articles Search by   Keyword   |   Journal title   |   Author name   |   DOI

 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510100

Host-Related Predictors of Persistence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

Engy Mohamed El-Ghitany and Azza Galal Farghaly

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2019

Spontaneous clearance occurs in varying proportions in individuals infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, the factors associated with this clearance are debatable. Their recognition may lead to a better understanding of HCV natural history and eventually improve associated prediction and management models. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the host-related factors associated with persistence of HCV infection. Among 1059 HCV-antibody-positive individuals who denied receiving HCV a...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510098

Statistical Behavior of Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases by Probability Distribution Functions

Amaury de Souza, Flavio Aristone, Widinei A Fernandes, Zaccheus Olaofe, Marcel Carvalho Abreu, Jose Francisco de Oliveira Junio, Guilherme Cavazzana and Cícero Manoel dos Santos

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 04, 2019

Climate change has a high impact on health and morbidity/ mortality in respiratory system diseases and remains poorly investigated in probability distribution modeling. The objective of this study was to analyze the adjustments of Burr (Bu), Inv Gausian 3P (IG3P), Lognormal (LN), Pert (Pe), Rayleigh 2P (Ra 2P) and Weibull 3P (W3P) distributions of the historical series of hospitalizations for respiratory diseases (total hospital admissions) for the period from 2004 to 2018, in Campo Grande, MS. ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510097

Climate Variability and Its Impact on the Incidence by Dengue in Six Endemic States of the Mexican Republic

Perez Contreras Irma, Alvarado Bravo Krystel Mariel, Barragan Gonzales Alin and Velasco Perez Daniel Alejandro

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 04, 2019

Climate variables are one of the main drivers of dengue epidemics and the proliferation of their vectors. Significant relationships have been found between fluctuations in temperature, rainfall, and the incidence of dengue. The interaction between high levels of these variables significantly influences the increase in the incidence after at least one month of this event. The confirmed cases of dengue reported in the epidemiological bulletins of the Epidemiology General Directorate were collected...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510096

Hepatitis C in Adults and Children: A Cross-Sectional Review from a Tertiary Hospital, Northeast Nigeria during the Period 2008-2015

Isaac Warnow Elon, Ajani Ayomikun, Jalo Iliya, Alkali Yaya, Oyeniyi Christianah, Okolie Henry, Saidu Abubakar, Jibrin Bara, Aremu John, Kudi Ayuba, Danlami Halilu and Charanchi Musa

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 04, 2019

HCV is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver failure related deaths among children, adolescents and adults worldwide. Sub-Saharan Africa suffers disproportionately from lack of access to both screening for HCV and treatment services with a resultant high rate of chronic hepatitis C related morbidity and mortality. Nigeria is considered among countries with high Hepatitis C burden and the national prevalence average in 2013 was estimated to be 2.2%. Routine screen...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510095

Design and Validation of a Survey for the Study of Food and Nutritional Security to Climate Change Vulnerability

Carlos Matias Scavuzzo, Eliana Álvarez Di Fino, Alberto Ferral and Maria Daniela Defago

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: October 14, 2019

Human Security is a concept instituted by the United Nations and refers to the possibility that each person can satisfy basic needs of different kinds: Health, food, environment, education, economy, politics, institutional access, etc. Both WHO and FAO emphasize these concepts related to food and nutritional security (FNS), and relate it to the vulnerability derived from emergency and disaster situations. These are increasingly frequent and complex in a context of climate change, since they affe...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510093

Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Formidable Threat or Silence before the Storm?

Helen Kest and Ashlesha Kaushik

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: September 21, 2019

Globally, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), notably methicillin-resistant S. aureus, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Vancomycin is considered a drug of last resort for severe MRSA and other resistant Gram-positive infections. Vancomycin enjoyed a high level of success for decades following MRSA outbreaks until recent reports of increasing S. aureus MICs culminating in high-level vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), first reported in 2002. Since then, there have been selected ca...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510092

Spontaneous Skin Lesions: The Importance of Differential Diagnosis

Montilla Alvaro Mabel, Delgado Vidarte Ana and Alcantara Luna Sara

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 19, 2019

Dermatofitosis are cutaneous infections caused by fungus. They affect the keratinized surface layers epidermis, hair and nails. We report a case of a 42-year-old female patient who presented with erythematous annular lesions with a raised edge on the chest, back, neck, hands and arms. These lesions were compatible with erythema multiforme, subacute lupus and/or ringworm infection. The biopsy of lesions was done and the study showed the structures suggestive of fungi in hematoxylin-eosin staining...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510091

Implication of Enteric Viruses in the Digestive Surgical Pathologies in Tunisian Children

Ben Haj Khalifa A, Jerbi A and Trabelsi A

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 06, 2019

Recent virological studies have shown the association between digestive diseases and some enteric viruses: adenovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, Our objectives were to show the impact of viral infections of the digestive complications and interactions between enteric viruses and digestive tract cells.During the study period, 64 samples were collected from children with gastrointestinal surgical pathologies. The AdV were detected in 9 cases (14%) and rotavirus in 1 case (1.5%). A male predominance ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510090

Prevalence and Determinants of Soil Transmitted Helminthes Infections among Primary School Children in Kerewo Town, Gena Bossa Woreda, Ethiopia: Cross Sectional Study

Teklemariam Ergat Yarinbab and Abebe Demissie Darcha

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: September 04, 2019

Soil-Transmitted Helminthes (STH) infection is a major public health problem among school-aged children in developing countries. In Ethiopia, school aged children have been identified as high risk group of population to be infected with Soil Transmitted Helminthes. Effective prevention and control of STH infection requires identification of risk factors among high risk groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of Soil Transmitted Helminthes infection ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510089

Incidence of Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Site Wound Infection among Frail Elderly Patients Admitted in a Tertiary Medical Center

Adolf Lim-Teodoro, MD, Mabel Angela Sarita, MD, Russel Semeniano, MD and Miguel Ramos Jr, MD, Ph.D

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: September 04, 2019

Nutrition is an important determinant of health in elderly patients. It also contributes to their overall quality of life and longevity. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube is used to provide enteral access in patients who are unable to swallow to improve nutrition. PEG site infection is an important healthcare-associated infection and this study aims to determine the incidence and clinical profile of PEG site wound infections among elderly patients admitted in a tertiary medical cent...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510088

Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Newborns: The Role of Neonatal Sepsis

Martina Fibbiani, Cristina Tuoni, Massimiliano Ciantelli, Serena Di Marco and Paolo Ghirri

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: September 04, 2019

Neonatal sepsis is an independent risk factor for the development of central nervous system injury, so preterm newborn, who is more exposed to infections, has a higher neurological risk. This research wanted to examine whether and how sepsis could influence preterm newborns neurodevelopmental outcome. Today prematurity is still a topical and globally discussed issue: 15 million preterm infants are born every year in the world and about 1 million of them dies because of the complications linked t...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510087

Interaction between Spatial and Temporal Scales for Entomological Field Data: Analysis of Aedes Aegypti Oviposition Series

Sofia Lanfri, Manuel Espinosa, Mario A Lanfri, Victoria M Periago, Marcelo Abril and Carlos M Scavuzzo

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: August 14, 2019

In Argentina, Aedes aegypti represents an important public health threat, since it is the vector responsible for the transmission of dengue, chikungunya, zika and yellow fever. Mundo Sano Foundation has been carrying out periodic surveys of immature vector stages in several cities of northern Argentina. The main tool to mitigate their spread is through vector control. Similarity between curves does not show spatial continuity in relation to the spatial arrangement of ovitraps, may be due to the ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510086

Descriptive Study of Neisseria Meningitidis Isolates from Patients in Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico in 2010 and 2011

Luz Elena Espinosa de los Monteros Perez, Jimenez Rojas LV, Gomez-Barreto D and Vazquez Moreno JA

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 08, 2019

Neisseria meningitidis is recognized as the cause of Infection Meningococcal Disease (IMD) generally develops rapidly 20% of survivors suffer from neurological and disabling sequelae in spite of prompt antibiotic therapy. The disease is a major concern in public heath worldwide and can occur as sporadic cases, outbreaks, and large epidemics. Although in Mexico the invasive meningococcal disease is notifiable, reports about meningococcal diseases are scarce with no data available related to the p...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510085

Implementation of Same-Day Sputum Smears Microscopy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Programmatic Qualitative Study

Boja Dufera Taddese, KumeraTerfa Kitila, Abay Sisay Misganaw, Daniel Melese Desalegn, Tinsae Kidanemariam Hailu and MeronSeifu Tebeje

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 19, 2019

In countries that have ensured effective External Quality Assessment (EQA) sputum smear microscopy, World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the implementation of same-day smear sputum microcopy. In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, the status of the same-day sputum smear microcopy implementation was not yet assessed. In-depth interview of Health Care Providers (HCPs) at Outpatient Departments (OPDs), clinical laboratories and Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) centres was conducted to ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510084

Older Persons with HIV in Canada

Phan Sok

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 18, 2019

Thanks to the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy, the number of older patients living with HIV, usually defined as individuals over 50 years of age, has markedly increased everywhere in the world. The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiology and special needs of older persons with HIV in Canada now and in the near future. It is estimated that, by 2025 in Canada, one in six of all HIV-infected adults will be over 50 years of age. Most will reside in Ontario, Quebec, and British Co...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510083

Tuberculous Spondylodiscitis in a Military Hospital in Gabon: Report of Eleven Patients

Mangouka Guingali Laurette, Iroungou Berthe A, Bivigou-Mboumba Berthold, Oura Landry, Mwanyombet Lucien and Nzenze Jean Raymond

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 04, 2019

Extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis (TB) are on the rise in sub-Saharan Africa and pose a major public health problem. The spine is the most frequent location of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Involvement of the spine causes severe back pain and weakness in the lower extremities. We report 11 cases of TB spondylodiscitis, commonly referred to as Pott's disease, who presented to the internal medicine department at the Military Hospital of Gabon (HIA OBO)....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510082

Frequency and Characterization Meningococcal Carriage Isolates, among Prisoner's Inmates from Mexico City

Luz Elena Espinosa de los Monteros Perez, Jimsenez Rojas LV, Gomez-Barreto D and Vazquez Moreno JA

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 27, 2019

Meningococcal disease in Mexico has a very low incidence; it is one of the countries with few reported cases as prevalence of the carrier state is unknown. Some studies have shown that many invasive meningococcal diseases are restricted to a specific number of hyper-virulent strains that contrast with carrier isolates. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and characterization of meningococcal carriage isolates among prisoner's inmates. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained, Neisseri...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510081

Epidemiological Notes about Bartonellosis Reactive Samples in Brazil

Maria de Fatima Goncalves Lopez Silva, Francisco Alexsandro Sousa Mesquita, Bidiah Mariano da Costa Neves and Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: June 21, 2019

artonellosis or Cat Scratch Disease (CSD) is defined as an infectious, benign illness that in most cases results from the scratching, licking or biting of animals carrying the bacterium Bartonella henselae. This study aims at describing the epidemiological profile of serologically reactive samples between the years 2011 and December 2017 in Brazil. Official data from the requests for diagnostic tests registered in GAL (Gerenciador de Ambiente Laboratorial/Laboratory Environment Manager) in the M...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510080

Hepatitis B Core Antibody Prevalence among Voluntary Blood Donors in Thailand

Kriangsak Chaiwong, Wilawan Saekram, Panya Thunnok, Sineenart Oota, Sonu Bhatnagar and Ubonwon Charoonruangrit

Article Type: Brief Report | First Published: June 03, 2019

Hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody is an effective marker for occult Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and is an integral part of blood donor screening in many countries. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of anti-HBc antibodies among voluntary blood donors in Thailand and its significance to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted HBV infection. A total of 3,197 voluntary blood donor samples that were pre-screened non-reactive for HBs-Ag serology and HBV ID-NAT were tested for...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510079

Influence of Seasonal Cattle Movement on Prevalence of Trypanosome Infections in Cattle in the Maasai Steppe, Tanzania

Kelvin Ngongolo, Anna B Estes, Peter J Hudson and Paul S Gwakisa

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 09, 2019

Animal African Trypanosomosis is a Neglected Tropical Disease with significant impacts to pastoral community livelihoods. Our study sought to determine the influence of seasonal cattle movements on the prevalence of trypanosome infections in cattle in the pastoral areas of the Maasai Steppe. Identification of spatial and temporal dynamics of trypanosome infections in cattle is essential for designing effective control strategies. To identify potential hotspots of trypanosome transmission, we wor...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510078

Assessing Risk Factors for Trypanosome Infections in Cattle in Wildlife Interface Areas in Northern Tanzania

Kelvin Ngongolo, Anna B Estes, Peter J Hudson and Paul S Gwakisa

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 04, 2019

Trypanosomosis is a vector-borne, tropical disease that causes mortality and morbidity in livestock and humans. In this study we investigated the risk factors for trypanosome infection in cattle in the Maasai Steppe of northern Tanzania. We assessed the influence of age, sex, herd size and history of treatment against trypanosomosis as risk factors of trypanosome infection. Cattle blood samples were collected from 150 cattle in three villages in the vicinity of Tarangire National Park, which act...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510077

Health Care System Delay of Tuberculosis Treatment and Its Correlates among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Hadiya Zone Public Health Facilities, Southern Ethiopia

Gedeyon Getahun, Tilahun Beyene Handiso and Lakew Abebe Gebretsadik

Article Type: Research article | First Published: April 06, 2019

Facility based cross sectional study triangulated by Qualitative data collection method. A total 340 PTB patients in Hadiya zone public health facilities included in the study. Health facilities were selected by Simple random sampling method from three woredas. DOTS user at the beginning of data collection was consecutively recruited in to the study until the intended sample size was fulfilled. Multivariable binary Logistic regression was used. A P-value < 0.05 at 95% CI was considered statistic...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510076

Antifungal Resistance of Candida Species in Bacolod City, Philippines

Alain C Juayang, Joseph Peter T Lim, Zeith Ceve B de los Reyes, Mary Dane B Tuante, Zia Isabel P Batiles, Jan Frances Nichole V Guino-o, Francis Raphael A Villanueva and Gemma B de los Reyes

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 05, 2019

Candida species, a group of opportunistic infection-causing microorganisms, has shown an increasing pattern of resistance against certain antifungal drugs through time. Thus, this retrospective study was conducted to describe the antifungal resistance of Candida species isolated from a tertiary hospital in Bacolod City, Philippines from July 2017 to July 2018. A total of 184 Candida species were isolated from clinical specimens with C. albicans (61%) having the highest frequency followed by C. t...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510075

A Risk Factor Analysis for MRSA Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia to Guide Empiric Therapy in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit

Megan E Feeney, PharmD, BCCCP, David E Lindsey. MD, Daniel E Vazquez, MD, Kyle Porter, MAS and Claire V Murphy, PharmD, BCPS, FCCM

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 05, 2019

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is increasing in prevalence. Treatment of VAP has moved toward ensuring patients are adequately covered for MRSA and other MDROs while balancing the need for antimicrobial stewardship and appropriateness of empiric coverage of these organisms in the setting of increasing resistance rates. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of and risk factors for MRSA VAP in surgical intensive care uni...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510074

Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of HIV among Pregnant Adolescents and Adolescent Mothers in the Kumbo West Health District of Cameroon

Frankline Sevidzem Wirsiy, Dickson Shey Nsagha, Omer Njajou and Joseph Besong Besong

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 18, 2109

This was an analytical cross sectional study among pregnant adolescents and adolescent mothers, carried out from April to May 2018 in the Kumbo West Health District (KWHD) of Cameroon. We used a multistage sampling design to select 6 health areas. In each of these 6 health areas selected, proportionate sampling method was employed to get 400 participants from the health areas. Data was collected using structured questionnaires and analysed using SPSS version 21. We adjusted for confounding varia...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510073

Zoonotic Antimicrobial Resistance as a Result of Iatrogenic Disease in Companion Animals - Case Study Reports

Elaine Meade, Mark Anthony Slattery and Mary Garvey

Article Type: March 15, 2019 | First Published: March 15, 2019

Iatrogenic disease represents an ongoing issue for veterinarians where animals manifest with secondary conditions as a result of medical treatment. Similarly, zoonotic disease and specifically resistant zoonotic pathogens represent an ongoing issue for public health safety. As an increasing number of zoonotic microbial species are being recognised as emerging and re-emerging diseases in humans, the issues relating to their antimicrobial resistance becomes more evident. This study reports on two ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510072

Incidence and Predictors of First Line Anti-Retroviral Therapy Failure among Adults Receiving HIV Care in North West Ethiopia: A Hospital-Based Follow-Up Study

Tsegaw Agezew, MSC, Abilo Tadesse, MD, Lemma Derseh, MPH and Mekonnen Yimer, MD

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 14, 2019

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores immune function and reduces HIV-related adverse outcomes. Patients on ART are recommended to periodic monitoring to ensure effective and durable treatment outcomes. Treatment failure is the main indication for ART switching and assessed by criteria used to define virologic, immunologic or clinical failure. A retrospective follow up study was conducted from June 1, to August 30, 2018 to determine the incidence and associated factors with first line ART failur...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510071

Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Tunisia: Results of a Multicenter Study

Senda Mezghani Maalej, Jihene Jdidi Trabelsi, Gustave Claude-alexandre, Ilhem Boutiba, Maha Mastouri, Sophia Besbes, Farouk Barguellil, Frederic Laurent and Adnene Hammami

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 11, 2019

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a major cause of infections in hospital and community settings is a global health concern. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and the molecular characteristics of MRSA strains causing community-acquired (CA) and hospital-acquired (HA) infections in Tunisia. A total of 135 non-duplicate MRSA strains were consecutively collected from five Tunisian hospitals. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by disc...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510070

Distribution of Rotavirus Genotypes among Children with Diarrhea Prior to Vaccine Introduction in Western Kenya

John B Ochieng, Sammy Khagayi, Billy Ogwel, Reuben Onkoba, Evans Apondi, Jane Juma, Mapaseka Seheri, Ina Peenze, Clayton Onyango, Elizabeth Hunsperger, Collins Tabu, Sergon Kibet, Richard Omore, Frank Odhiambo, Jeffrey Mphahlele, Jennifer R Verani, Barry Fields, Godfrey Bigogo, Kayla F Laserson, Jacqueline E Tate, Jason M Mwenda and Robert F Breiman

Article Type: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | First Published: February 16, 2019

Group A rotavirus is the leading cause of diarrhea hospitalization among children worldwide. Most fatal rotavirus-associated diarrhea cases among children under 5 years occur in Africa and Asia. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of circulating rotavirus strains among children less than 5 years in western Kenya to provide baseline data on the prevalence of each genotype prior to the introduction of monovalent rotavirus vaccine in Kenya. From January 2010 to December 2013, stool samples w...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510069

Impact of Rapid Microorganism Identification Using Two Multiplex PCR Platforms on Timing of Antimicrobial Therapy

Natasha N Pettit, Zhe Han, Angella Charnot-Katsikas, Jennifer Pisano and Vera Tesic

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 11, 2019

Strategies to improve time to administration of appropriate, effective antimicrobial therapy can improve patient outcomes. We sought to retrospectively assess if the earlier identification of blood pathogens and their resistance determinants with multiplex PCR platforms could have an impact on time to initiate appropriate antimicrobial therapy. All patients with monomicrobial positive blood cultures from March to June 2013 were included in the retrospective chart review analysis. We evaluated th...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510068

High Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Central Nigeria

Peter Asaga Mac, Adamu Chipago Suleiman and Philomena Ehi Airiohuodion

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: January 30, 2019

A total of 200 pregnant women subjects were selected for this study to determine the sero-prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and assess the risk factors among pregnant women attending ante natal care at FMC, Keffi, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used for the data collection. Sera were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). The sero prevalence of HBV infection and its infectivity is high in Central Nigeria. This resear...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510067

Intraleukocytic Yeast Inclusions and Toxic Granulation Neutrophils on Peripheral Blood Smear: An Interesting Synergy between Hematology and Microbiology

Fabio Miglietta, Claudio Palumbo, Fernando Parente, Luciano Velardi, Rosella Matera, Luigi Conte, Michela Dargenio, Maurizio Quarta, Milva Maria Nuzzo, Nicola Di Renzo and Giambattista Lobreglio

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: January 18, 2019

The presence of yeast neutrophil inclusions was observed and discussed several times in other reports; moreover some works demonstrated how Toxic Granulation Neutrophils (TGNs) are especially helpful in predicting acute bacterial infection, while the development of candidaemia-related TGNs was rarely described and in-depth. We describe two occasional findings of neutrophil inclusions and marked TGNs respectively due to Candida tropicalis and Candida guillermondi on peripheral blood smear....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510066

Profile of Pathologies Diagnosed in Patients Hospitalized in a Ward of Infectious Diseases at the Era of HIV in Bamako, Mali West Africa

Cissoko Y, Traore F, Dicko MS, Konate I, Sidibe AF, Dembele JP, Fongoro S and Dao S

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: January 16, 2019

Infectious diseases remain major public health issues with their corollary of epidemic and endemic disease, principally in developing countries. In 2010, the number of infections diseases related deaths was estimated to 15 millions per year worldwide and the World Health Organization (WHO) fore-casts this number to 13 million in 2050. These various infectious diseases, from the most frequent like malaria to the less like neglected tropical diseases are a scourge for developing countries and are ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510065

Cost-Effectiveness Analyses of Different Vaccination Strategies to Reduce Pertussis among Infants in Sweden

Ellen Wolff, Bernice Aronsson, Markus Hultstrand and Lisa Brouwers

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 09, 2019

Pertussis is a drawn-out and troublesome respiratory disease. Infants have a greater burden of disease than older children and adults, and are more likely to suffer complications. New vaccination strategies need to be considered to reduce pertussis among infants. The aim of the study was to evaluate cost-effectiveness of three alternative vaccination strategies, in comparison with current vaccination schedule....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510064

Uncomplicated Malaria and Intestinal Helminth Co-Infections among Schoolchildren in Abobo District, Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire)

Kpongbo Etienne Angora, Vincent Djohan, Abibatou Konate, Pulcherie Christiane Kiki-Barro, Akoua Valerie Bedia-Tanoh, Kondo Fulgence Kassi, Abo Henriette Vanga-Bosson, Sebastien Miezan, Eby Herve Menan and William Yavo

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: January 04, 2019

Malaria and soil-transmitted helminth infections are morbidity causes in most tropical areas in the world. In Côte d'Ivoire, their association greats a major public health problem and their coexistence is the subject of very few studies. The current study investigated uncomplicated malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among schoolchildren in Abobo District, Abidjan. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 256 children aged 2 to 15 recruited at the Anonkoua - Kouté Urban and Comm...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510063

Evaluation of Cases with Gemella Infection: Cross-Sectional Study

Selcuk Nazik, Esma Cingoz, Ahmet Riza Sahin and Selma Ates

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: December 19, 2018

Gemella is a Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccus bacterium. It is a member of the normal flora and rarely causes infection. This study aims at evaluating, accompanied by the literature, Gemella-associated infections that are also present in the normal flora. This study is a cross-sectional study. Gemella infections recorded in 2014-2018 in University Hospital, Turkey. Gemella is a Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccus bacterium. It is parti...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510062

Clostridium difficile in Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patients

Jennifer E MacDonald, Ashley E Glode and Luciano J Costa

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 15, 2018

Diarrhea is a common complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) due to multiple etiologies, including toxicity from the conditioning regimen and Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection. We hypothesized that C. difficile infection is uncommon in recipients of autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT) and testing for C. difficile is over utilized at our institution. We performed a retrospective, single center analysis of the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for C. difficile a...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510061

Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Causing Bloodstream Infection from Six Tertiary Hospitals in Beijing, China

Yanning Ma, Jie Liu, Chunmei Bao, Xiuhong Hao, Jingui Cao, Yan Wang and Jiyong Yang

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 14, 2018

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most prevalent pathogens in China. However, little is known about the prevalence of clinical P. aeruginosa isolates causing bloodstream infections (BSIs) in China. BSI-causing P. aeruginosa (BSI-PA) was collected from six tertiary-care hospitals in Beijing. Genetic relatedness was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by agar dilution method, and sequence types (STs) were evaluated by multilocu...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510060

Tigecycline Induced Cholestatic Liver Injury: A Case Report

Jing Liang, Kai Zhao, Liqin Zhu and Yihe Liu

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: November 26, 2018

A 41-year-old female patient received tigecycline because of abdominal infection caused by carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) after performing cholangiolithotomy by the endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP). Subsequently she developed cholestatic liver injury as substantiated by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin. Tigecycline was switched to dual carbapenems. Her liver function tests improved. We suggest that bilirubin levels should be cared in pat...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510059

Patient-Centered MDR-TB Care: What do MDR-TB Patients in Urban and Rural Peru Say?

Sangeeta Mookherji and Kei Alegria-flores

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 05, 2018

Controlling multidrug and extremely drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) poses a grave challenge to public health, globally. Studies repeatedly show that effective M/XDR-TB management goes beyond strategies recommended in global TB control plans, uniformly pointing to patient-centred care as critical to progress in controlling the epidemic. We aim to describe patient-centred care in M/XDR-TB management in Peru, which presented a context where M/XDR-TB remains a persistent problem, even with in...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510058

Syphilis: A Tricky Disease that may Pose Some Diagnostic Challenges - A Case Report

Norberto Sugaya and Dante Migliari

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: September 24, 2018

This article reports a case of secondary stage syphilis involving the oral mucosa and the skin (the palms). The lesion's clinical aspects of both sites could possibly be misdiagnosed for some common inflammatory diseases, among them oral lichenoid contact lesion or drug reaction. As a standard procedure, the differential diagnosis required to rule out syphilis. The treponemal and anti-treponemal tests confirmed the diagnosis of syphilis. The patient was successfully treated, but, unfortunately, ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510057

A Review on Sheeppox and Goatpox: Insight of Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment and Control Measures in Ethiopia

Takele Tesgera Hurisa, Zhizhong Jing, Huaijie Jia, Guohua Chen and Xiao-Bing He

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 29, 2018

Sheeppox and goatpox are caused by a genus of Capripox virus causing a severe problem and great economic loss in Ethiopia and also in sheep and goat rearing countries in many parts of the world. The objective of this review is to give insight on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and control measures of sheeppox and goatpox disease. Generally, the disease is less commonly seen in indigenous breeds in area where it is endemic as compared to exotic breeds. Mostly the disease is transmitted by dire...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510056

Digital Surveillance and Communication Strategies to Infectious Diseases of Poverty Control and Elimination in Africa

Ernest Tambo, Shang Xia, Xin-Yu Feng and Zhou Xiao-Nong

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 23, 2018

Investing in digital technologies to support health-based research, modelling and planning, preparedness and timely effective response, and long-term management benefits has been recognized in improving epidemiological analysis, disease prevention, control to elimination, health education and promotion. This paper provides valuable insights and approaches for public health in collection, analysis, interpretation, use and dissemination of health surveillance data, resource allocation, for guiding...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510055

Cerebro-Meningeal Tuberculosis in HIV-Negative Adults

Guenifi Wahiba, Gasmi Abdelkader, Boukhrissa Houda, Rais Mounira, Hachani Abderahmen, Ouyahia Amel, Mechakra Saleh and Lacheheb Abdelmadjid

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 26, 2018

Tuberculosis remains a public health problem worldwide. Neurological localization is the most severe manifestation of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis characterized by a high mortality rate and a high rate of sequelae among survivors; its diagnosis is hampered by the absence of rapid and accurate tools, therefore it is often evoked and treated on presumption arguments. The aim of this study is to assess the epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, treatment, and outcome features in patients with cereb...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510054

New Perspectives of HCV Infection: Focus on New Treatment Agents and Comorbidity Status, a Short Review

Huang Yu-Fen and Su Hui-Chen

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: July 23, 2018

Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is one of the main leading causes of mortality associated with liver disease worldwide. Different predominant modes of transmission in the local area play an important role for the disease burden. Several cofactors are identified to accelerate the disease progression. Besides, several comorbidities are common in patients with CHC and also have poor response to the traditional combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) treatment....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510053

Common Pathophysiological Pathways for Apical and Upper Lobe Lung Disease

Aaron R Casha, Alexander Manche, Marilyn Gauci, Andre Navarro and Emanuel Farrugia

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 20, 2018

The pathophysiological factors that make the upper lobe "vulnerable" to various different pathologies are additive, and not mutually exclusive. They include a tall, thin body habitus with an antero-posteriorly flattened chest as associated with a low BMI, compounded by the poor apical blood supply and concomitant limited lymphatic drainage, possibly accentuated by a physically tall lung and a deep first rib furrow that makes the apex appear prominent....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510052

Impact of the Biomechanical 'Pleural Stress' Pressure Vessel Hypothesis on the Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis: Predictors of TB Reactivation and its Application to TB Screening

Aaron R Casha, Roberto Caruana-Gauci, Alexander Manche, Marilyn Gauci, Ruben Gatt, Hannah-Marie Casha-Gauci and Joseph N Grima

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 15, 2018

A hypothesis for the pathogenesis of pulmonary TB is presented based on the biomechanics of pleural stress in the context of the lung as a pressure vessel. This hypothesis modelled pleural stress as a marker of pleural tissue destruction and subsequent repair. It identified five predictors of TB reactivation, namely adolescent and young adult age, male gender, apical location, low antero-posterior chest diameter or low thoracic-index rib-cage shape and the presence of pre-existing apical blebs.....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510051

Assessment of Systemic Fungal Infections among Diabetic Patients in Enugu, Nigeria

Theophilus Kachi Udeani, Victoria Nneka Asogwa and Uche Ezenwaka

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: June 15, 2018

Opportunistic invasive fungal infections are emerging health challenges worldwide, especially among immunocompromised hosts. This study investigated systemic fungal infections in diabetic patients. The diabetic patients were recruited from the Diabetic Clinics; Enugu State University Teaching Hospital Parklane, Enugu. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on the demographic and risk factors from the subjects....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510050

Effect of Infection Prevention and Control Measures on the Length of Hospital Stay of Patients at Lebanese Hospitals

Ahmad Dimassi, Katia Iskandar, Roula Matta, Nathalie Lahoud, Pierre Abi Hanna, Mira Jbeily and Pascale Salameh

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 07, 2018

Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) measures are related to medical practices that prevent or minimize spreading of infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of IPC measures on the length of hospital stay (LOS) of patients in infectious diseases service at Lebanese hospitals....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510049

Epidemiological Markers for HIV Infection among First-Time Antenatal Attendees in Sierra Leone: 2012-2015 Longitudinal Study

Jia Bainga Kangbai, Isata Victoria Mandoh, Matilda King, Josephine Alpha Rogers and Sulaiman Lansanah Mandoh

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: March 31, 2018

Globally it is estimated that 10% of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected patients are coinfected with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) which is the leading cause of chronic liver diseases including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In countries with high HBV endemicity the seroprevalence rate can be as high as 25% with approximately 10% of the HIV infected population coinfected with HBV....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510048

Tinea Capitis: Unusual Chronic Presentation in an Elderly Woman

Elizabeth Salazar, Daniel Asz-Sigall, Diana Vega and Roberto Arenas

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 31, 2018

Tinea capitis is a superficial fungal infection of the scalp and hair caused by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton and Microsporum. Tinea capitis is very rare in adults, and may affect those with immunosuppressive diseases or menopausal elderly women. Clinical manifestations along with trichoscopy and Wood’s light, can help the clinician to determine the correct diagnosis, in order to reduce irreversible sequelae and decrease multiple contagion....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510047

A Survey of Antimicrobial Agents Usage in Poultry Farms and Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia Coli and Staphylococci Isolates from the Poultry in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Joshua Awogbemi, Moses Adeyeye and Ezekiel Olugbenga Akinkunmi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 24, 2018

Compared to other livestock, domestic fowls are much more commonly reared and consumed in Nigeria. The emergence of serious live-threatening infections from veterinary sources and treatment failures occurring with the available antibiotics warrants investigation into the use of antimicrobial agents in poultry farms and how they contribute to the menace of antibiotic resistance. The main aim of this study was to investigate the use of antimicrobial agents in poultry farms by poultry farmers in Il...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510046

Three Novel Acinetobacter baumannii Plasmid Replicase-Homology Groups Inferred from the Analysis of a Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strain Isolated in Argentina

María M Cameranesi, Adriana S Limansky, Jorgelina Moran-Barrio, Guillermo D Repizo and Alejandro M Viale

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 06, 2017

Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen responsible for a variety of nosocomial infections. Its success in the hospital environment obeys to multiple causes, among them, the ability to resist antimicrobial compounds. It can rapidly evolve Multidrug Resistance (MDR) when confronted with antibiotic therapy....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510045

Quality of Perioperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis in a Community Hospital in Western Qatar

H Guanche Garcell, Ariadna Villanueva Arias and RA Nonato Alfonso

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 25, 2017

Descriptive study was carried out in a 75-bed public hospital in Western Qatar. The study included the patients underwent selected procedures who required antibiotic prophylaxis from Jan-2013 to June 2016. Data was collected by the infection control practitioner....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510044

Risk of Severe Influenza Infection: Hypercytokinemia Gene Polymorphisms and Related Plasma Proteome in Canadian Young Adults

Sirbarinder Bryn Dhir, Ahmed El-Sohemy and Alaa Badawi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 13, 2017

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes influencing hypercytokinemia have been implicated in the clinical manifestations of severe influenza infection. Genotype-phenotype studies in healthy subjects may help to identify biomarkers of early prediction for severe disease outcome....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510043

Applied Medical Mathematical Modelling Technique for Epidemiology Approach for New Emerging Infection

Viroj Wiwanitkit

Article Type: editorial | First Published: November 08, 2017

Infection is the common pathology in medicine. The new emerging infection is the present problem worldwide. Within the past few years, there are several new emerging infections. The diseases are usually problematic and need good management and control....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510042

Cerebral Aspergillosis in a Patient with p-ANCA Vasculitis: Serial Imaging Observation over 15 Months

Mei Chen Chen, Che Kim Tan and Wen Liang Yu

Article Type: letter to the editor | First Published: November 06, 2017

Aspergillosis is well known in a patient with perinuclear Antineutrophilic Cytoplasmic Antibody (p-ANCA)-associated vasculitis and pulmonary renal syndromes....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510041

Cytomegalovirus Pneumonia Rather Than Pneumocystis Pneumonia in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Contributor or Bystander?

Hsin-Ju Tang and Wen-Liang Yu

Article Type: Editor | First Published: October 26, 2017

This is a 45-year-old man, who has been working in China for several years and denied any systemic diseases before. He has suffered from the right axillary mass for 3 weeks, which was film and associated with mild tenderness. He was admitted to the Hematology department of the hospital on May 1, 2017. The Computed Tomography (CT) scan from neck to the chest showed a large enhancing mass over right axillary area, favoring lymphoma or metastatic lymphadenopathy....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510040

A Study on the Origin of Bovine Rotavirus Strains Detected from the Children of the Nasu District, Tochigi, Japan

Kei Numazaki and Maho Ichikawa

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 28, 2017

Serious gastrointestinal infection of Rotavirus (RV) is usually prevalent during winter months and often seen in infants and young children. Studies on genotypes of prevalent rotavirus strains are quite important for preventing infection, developing vaccines, and its evaluation....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510039

Serotyping Toxoplasma Gondii: A Cross-Sectional Study in Uruguay

Susana Sousa, Andres Puime, Jose Manuel Correia da Costa and Marie-Laure Darde

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 23, 2017

Toxoplasma gondii genotypes display high genetic diversity in South America with levels of diversity not yet seen in Europe. Indeed, highly virulent strains even for immunocompetent humans have been described. However, limited or no information appears to be available dealing with strains of T. gondii circulating in Uruguay....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510038

Cytomegalovirus Infection of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Soweto, South Africa: A Look Back at the Clinical and Histological Features over 8 Years

Reena Dhansukh Mohanlal and Alan Karstaedt

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 26, 2017

Despite the widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. CMV gastrointestinal tract infection is poorly described. This retrospective study was undertaken to describe the clinical and histological features of biopsy confirmed CMV infection of the gastrointestinal tract in a large teaching hospital with a high prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510037

An Outcome Evaluation of a Standardized Computerized Prescriber Protocol for the Management of Clostridium Difficile Colitis in a Teaching Tertiary Care Facility

Linda Nwachukwu, Courtney Armstrong, Zachary Mulkey, Kristen Fuhrmann and Charles F Seifert

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 20, 2017

Clostridium Difficile Infection (CDI) continues to be the leading cause of healthcare-associated infectious colitis in the United States, replacing oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common cause of healthcare-associated infection....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510036

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Hepatitis B: A Survey among the Internet Users in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Abubaker Ibrahim Elbur, Nawaf Almalki, Abdualziz Alghamdi and Housain A Alqarni Alqarni

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 01, 2017

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is an important and serious global health problem. Despite the fact that there is a decrease in the prevalence rate of HBV infection in Saudi Arabia, but still it causes significant morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to measure the level of knowledge and to identify attitude and practice on HBV....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510035

Maternal and Fetal Death after Dengue Infection: Insights on Dengue Diagnosis

Christiane Fernandes Ribeiro, Ana Carla Gomes Soares, Vania Gloria Silami Lopes, Patricia Brasil, Ana Maria Bispo De Filippis, Priscila Conrado Guerra Nunes and Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 17, 2017

Dengue Virus (DENV) is an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus and has four antigenically distinct serotypes (DENV 1-4). Brazil is considered hyperendemic for dengue, and all serotypes have been identified....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510034

Needlestick Injury among Medical Students in an Australian University

Brahmaputra Marjadi, John Doan Nguyen, Peter Hoppett and Mary-Louise McLaws

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 16, 2017

Needlestick Injuries (NSI) commonly occurs in the hospital setting. Medical students are at risk of NSI due to lack of clinical experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and knowledge, attitudes, awareness and practices of NSI among medical students at an Australian university....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510033

Nocardia Mastoiditis in an Immunocompromised Patient

Sydney Marsh, Felicia Ratnaraj, Roy Norris, Jason Gass and Renuga Vivekanandan

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 08, 2017

Nocardia, a gram positive bacteria, is found primarily in the immunocompromised population. We present a case of nocardia causing mastoiditis in a patient with a history of recurrent otitis media, with a focus on appropriate treatment selection. ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510032

Detection of Human Papillomavirus among Patients with Clinically Diagnosed Cutaneous Warts by PCR Method

Yang Yang, Hexiao Wang, Xinrui Zhang, Wei Huo, Ruiqun Qi, Xiaodong Li and Xing-Hua Gao

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 20, 2017

Human cutaneous warts are prevalent worldwide and are caused by Human Papillomavirus. Most cutaneous warts can be clinically diagnosed without any auxiliary examination, but additional tests are required to confirm the infection of Human Papillomavirus in some atypical cases. The aim of this study was to measure the applicability of HPV DNA detection in cutaneous warts in a clinical setting....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510031

Prevalence, Predictors and Treatment Outcome of Type 2 Diabetes among Newly Diagnosed Sputum Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Western Cameroon

Leonard Sama Fonkeng, Innocent Mbulli Ali, Michel Noubom, Roland Bamou, Assoua HSR Sterve, Ayuk Leo, JR Kuiate and Christopher B Tume

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 21, 2017

There is a growing awareness on a global scale on the possible relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM). We conducted a prospective study in sputum positive pulmonary TB patients in two TB management clinics in Bamenda and Bafoussam in the North West and West regions of Cameroon respectively to determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, associated risk factors and the impact of diabetes in the treatment outcome....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510030

Inverse Correlation between 25-OH Vitamin D Levels and Severity of Viral Respiratory Illness in Infants

Mary Fairchok, Christina Schofield, Wei-Ju Chen, Mary Pugh, Hugh Bigg, John C Arnold and Eugene V Millar

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 17, 2017

25-OH vitamin D levels above 30 ng/mL activate HCAP-18, which impacts the immune response to respiratory viruses. While emerging data suggests a link between low levels of 25-OH vitamin D and an increased incidence of respiratory infections, the relationship between these levels and severity of infection is unknown. We hypothesized that infants with insufficient 25-OH vitamin D levels would have more severe viral respiratory infections....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510029

Molecular Identification of Trypanosome Species in Cattle of the Mikumi Human/Livestock/Wildlife Interface Areas, Tanzania

Narcisa L Nhamitambo, Sharadhuli I Kimera and Paul S Gwakisa

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 07, 2017

Trypanosomosis is a major neglected disease of animals and man that causes great negative socio-economic impact in many African countries. It is caused by protozoan parasites of the blood from the genus Trypanosoma. Previous studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of trypanosomosis in Tanzania, but none has been done in the human/livestock/wildlife interface areas of Mikumi National Park....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510028

Features and Prognostic Factors of Tuberculous Meningitis in a Tertiary Hospital in Malaysia

Chia Peck Kee, Petrick Periyasamy, Zhe Kang Law, Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim, Wan Nur Nafisah WanYahya, Hazlina Mahadzir, Shahrul Azmin Md Rani, Ramesh Sahathevan, Rabani Remli, Raymond Azman Ali, Hui Jan Tan, Syazarina Sharis Osman, Shahizon Azura Mohamed Mukari and Shamsul Azhar Shah

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 17, 2017

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) has been one of the major extrapulmonary manifestation with high morbidity and mortality. This paper aims to study the clinical features, prognostic factors and clinical outcome of TBM in a local tertiary hospital. This was an observational study on TBM in patients who were diagnosed in a local tertiary hospital....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510027

A Meta-Analysis of Directly Observed Treatment vs. Self- Administered Therapy Outcomes in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

Ardigleusa Alves Coêlho, Ricardo Ney Oliveira Cobucci, Emannuela Maria Nunes Freitas, Paulo Henrique Lima, Ewerton Willian Gomes Brito, Tânia Maria Ribeiro Monteiro de Figueiredo, Ana Katherine da Silveira Gonçalves and Severina Alice da Costa Uchoa

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 10, 2017

A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted in order to compare the effectiveness of directly observed therapy, short-course (DOTS) with self-administered treatment (SAT) in people with pulmonary tuberculosis. PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and the Scielo/Lilacs were searched for studies published between 1 January 1965 and 31 December 2013....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510026

Building Surveillance Capacity: Lessons Learned from a Ten Year Experience

Pamela J Kennedy, Sajata Outin, Tomas R Rodriguez, Lauren Polansky, Margaret McCarron and Karen R Siener, Ann C Moen

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 08, 2017

As Global Health Security partners endeavor to support capacity building globally, it is important to examine prior efforts for building surveillance and laboratory systems for emerging infectious diseases. CDC provides financial support and technical assistance to foreign governments for the development or improvement of influenza surveillance networks in over fifty countries through cooperative agreements....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510025

The Intestinal Microbial Community and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Hubert E Blum

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 06, 2017

Based on molecular, genetic, epigenetic, biochemical and microbiological analyses it is increasingly possible to identify individual disease-related characteristics that define disease pathogenesis, disease disposition or prognosis as well as the efficacy of therapeutic strategies (personalized medicine/precision medicine')....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510024

Preliminary Studies of Edible Bird Nest (EBN) Extract Reduced H1N1 Virus Induced Apoptosis on Cultured Cells-In Vitro

Nur Ain A, Abdul Rahman O and Aini I

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: February 28, 2017

The virus infection result in apoptosis of cells included mechanisms to inhibit apoptosis. It seems that both cellular and viral factors are involved depending on types of cells. Edible bird nest (EBN) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that contained various bioactive compounds with health benefits in human. ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510023

Bluetongue in Morocco 2004 to 2015: An Overview

Lhor Youssef, Kyriaki Nomikou, Khayli Mounir, Bouslikhane Mohammed, Fassi Fihri Ouafaa and El Harrak Mehdi

Article Type: Overview | First Published: February 18, 2017

Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious, arthropod borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. BT is a notifiable disease of huge socio-economic concern and of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products. Due to the segmented nature of genome, there is existence of high diversity in BT virus serotypes too as a consequence of genetic reassortments....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510022

Alternative Methods for Treating MRSA-Colonized and Infected Patients: Bacteriophages, Inhibitors of Wall Teichoic Acid Biosynthesis and Cultures of Not Drug-Resistant Staphylococcus Epidermidis

Felix-Martin Werner and Rafael Covenas

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2016

The colonization and infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a health problem of major importance in hospitals and long-term care facilities. Active decolonization measures are performed in MRSA-colonized patients; infections caused by MRSA are treated with vancomycin and other reserve antibiotics. The administration of bacteriophages could prevent the formation of MRSA biofilms....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510021

Epidemiology of Zoonotic Diseases in the United States: A Comprehensive Review

Adekunle Sanyaolu, Chuku Okorie, Nasima Mehraban, Oladapo Ayodele, Sarah K Tshitenge, Rochelle Knox, Elda Mullaj, Aaron Nandzo, Ayman El-Samman, Steven Neshewat and Sinthy Vivek

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 15, 2016

Zoonotic diseases or infections (Zoonoses) are ailments that are naturally transmitted from animals to humans (or vice versa). These diseases are transmitted either by the consumption of contaminated food and water, exposure to the pathogen during preparation, processing or by direct contact with infected animals or humans. Zoonotic diseases have a significant effect on public health worldwide, showing a higher incidence rate in developing countries due to lack of control strategies, as well as ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510020

Prevalence and Characteristics of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Adult Sickle Cell Disease Patients Living in France

Jean-Benoit Arlet, Cloe Comarmond, Anoosha Habibi, Katia Stankovic, Jean-Antoine Ribeil, Marilucy Lopez Sublet, Louis Affo, Christelle Chantalat Auger, Marie-Anne Bouldouyre, Justine Gellen-Dautremer, Sylvain Le Jeune, Elena Fois, Latifatou Boukari, Veronique Perronne, Denis Vincent, Jacques Pouchot, Djamal Khimoud, Francois Lionnet and Patrice Cacoub

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 14, 2016

The relationship between HCV infection and complications of sickle cell disease SCD has not been reported. To determine prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in adult patients with SCD, and to analyze the relationship between HCV infection and SCD complications. A total of 267 SCD patients were included. A standardized questionnaire was filled out, including history and complications of SCD, and the status and main characteristics of HCV infection....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510019

Antiretroviral Therapy Utilization in the Intensive Care Unit

Mia N Barnes, Monika N Daftary, Mary K Maneno and Faria F Farhat

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: November 14, 2016

Although clinical advances have been demonstrated through the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the management of an HIV infected patient within the intensive care unit (ICU) has been a topic of controversy due to the lack of evidence-based clinical guidelines to assist in the management of HIV patients admitted to the intensive care unit. The objective of this study was to examine ART utilization in the medical ICU and to assess relationships between therapy, clinical characteristics and mor...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510018

Effectiveness of SP-IPTp for Malaria and Evidence for the Need of T. Gondii Infection Preventive Policy during Pregnancy in Ghana

Reginald Arthur-Mensah Jnr, Emmanuel Awusah Blay, Irene Ayi, John Larbi, Takashi Suzuki and Nobuo Ohta

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: September 13, 2016

Malaria and toxoplasmosis during pregnancy are each reported to cause severe negative consequences in both mother and child. In Ghana, efforts are ongoing to control malaria from all facets but there is no such effort yet for control of toxoplasmosis. In this study, we sought to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium spp and T. gondii infections in mothers at delivery and their neonates in a malaria holo-endemic area where Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine intermittent preventive therapy for malaria in ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510017

Lemierre's Syndrome without Internal Jugular Vein Thrombophlebitis: A Diagnostic Conundrum

Gbolahan O Ogunbayo, Josephine Adunse, Odunayo Olorunfemi and Nashwa Abdulsalam

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 16, 2016

A previously healthy 23-year-old male presented with fever and shortness of breath. His illness initially started six days before presentation with a sore throat. Two days later he developed fevers with associated chills, rigors, and night sweats. He also complained of myalgias, non-productive cough, a right-sided chest pain, and shortness of breath on exertion, as well as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. His symptoms continued to worsen until he became dyspneic at rest and was br...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510016

A Systematic Review of Efficacy Outcomes Reported from Clinical Trials Evaluating Vaccine Candidates Targeting Plasmodium Falciparum

James D MacKinnon

Article Type: Systematic Review | First Published: August 15, 2016

Malaria remains one of the most destructive communicable diseases worldwide. In the campaign towards global malaria eradication, the development of effective vaccinees has become paramount with the emergence of anti-malarial drug resistance to primary treatment and prophylactic regimens. Of particular focus are vaccinees specific to Plasmodium falciparum....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510015

Dengue Fever: Historical Perspective and the Global Response

Tyler Warkentien and Rebecca Pavlicek

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 02, 2016

Dengue fever remains an important mosquito-borne viral illness resulting in substantial human and economic costs. Despite rising incidence rates in recent decades, there is cause for hope, particularly in light of recent advancements in dengue vaccine and vector control research. This article reviews past dengue control efforts and discusses current and future strategies for dengue control....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510014

Essential Transition Metal Ion Complexation as a Strategy to Improve the Antimicrobial Activity of Organic Drugs

Graciela Borthagaray, Melina Mondelli and Maria H Torre

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 02, 2016

In order to maintain the capacity to treat infections it is necessary to adopt strategies for the development of new drugs. The use of metal ions in medicine for their antimicrobial effects was prevalent for many years before the advent of antibiotics. During the second half of the twentieth century, active metal complexes with different chemical, physicochemical and biochemical properties than the constituents reborn by the threat posed by microbial multidrug resistance....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510013

Tuberculosis Control in Jiangsu Province, China

Li Yan, Zhu Limei, Cheng Chen, Lu Wei, Booker G.W, Yu Hao and Polyak S.W

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 02, 2016

Tuberculosis (TB) has been a major health problem for thousands of years. It took almost 200 years after the discovery of the disease in early 1689 to identify the causative pathogen, namely Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Robert Koch who was awarded a Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1905 for his work in this area. Currently, TB is a global pandemic that outranks HIV-AIDS and malaria as the leading cause of death by infectious disease. In 1993 the World Health Organization declared TB a g...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510012

Resistance Profile of Mycobacteria Isolated from Patients Undergoing Retreatment in Senegal

Mouhamadou Lamine Dia, Sow AI, Cisse MF, Gueye Pal, Ba F, Cisse NN, Balde O, Diouf B and Sarr M

Article Type: Short Note | First Published: April 01, 2016

Resistance to anti-tuberculosis medication is a major public health problem worldwide and Senegal is not spared. Indeed, the WHO reported 13,186 cases of tuberculosis in Senegal (including new cases and relapses) for 2013, 2.1% of which were multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among new cases and 17% in retreatment patients. Elsewhere in the world, the WHO estimates the number of people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) at around 2 billion and the number of cases o...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510011

Fluorescent DNA Aptamer-Magnetic Bead Sandwich Assays and Portable Fluorometer for Sensitive and Rapid Foodborne Pathogen Detection and Epidemiology

John G. Bruno, Taylor Phillips, Alicia M. Richarte, Tiffany Montez, Adrian Garcia and Jeffrey C. Sivils

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 28. 2016

This report extends fluorescent DNA aptamer-magnetic bead-based sandwich assays developed and published for ultrasensitive detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Listeria monocytogenes by adding prototype assays for pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shiga-like toxin-1 and Salmonella enterica. These tests are assessed by a highly portable fluorometer, thus enabling on-site detection and tracking or epidemiology of major foodborne pathogen outbreaks potentially from "farm to fork"....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510010

Prevalence of β-Lactamase Positive Ampicillin Resistant H. Influenzae from Children of Bangladesh

Harunur Rashid, Shereen Shoma and Mahbubur Rahman

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 26, 2016

A total of 255 NPS specimens were collected from every seventh of 1786 children with meningitis (n = 293) and pneumonia (n = 1493). One hundred and twenty one (47.5%) H. influenzae were isolated from 255 NPS specimens. Among 121 isolates, 15 (38%) were recovered from meningitis compared to 106 (49%) from pneumonia cases (P < 0.3). Fifteen percent of isolates (18/121) were serotype b (Hib) and the rest were non-Hib....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510009

Development of Teicoplanin Tolerance by Staphylococcus epidermidis and Increased Susceptibility to Bacteriophage Type 92 by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Polymicrobial Biofilms

Jon M Riggs, Robert JC McLean, Rodney E Rohde and Gary M Aron

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 29, 2016

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a commensal commonly found in polymicrobial biofilms with Staphylococcus aureus. Given the increasing drug resistance in Staphylococci, we explored combination therapy with teicoplanin and bacteriophage type 92 (Siphoviridae) on the survival and antibiotic tolerance of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and S. epidermidis to teicoplanin and bacteriophage in 48-h pure and mixed culture biofilms....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510008

Assessment of Parent-Adolescent Communication on HIV/AIDS Prevention in Kemebata Temebaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Fiseha Lemango, Terefe Gone, Yohannes H/Michael and Shimeles Ololo

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 29, 2016

HIV/AIDS has significantly affected the well-being of adolescents and has posed serious concern for their parents. Parent-adolescent communication on HIV/AIDS is a key tool to prevent and control the disease among young people. However, information about parental involvement on adolescent HIV prevention activities is scarce in Ethiopia in general and in the study area in particular....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510007

Legionella's Pneumoniae: A New Outbreak in Spain and Urinary Antigen Test Review

Soraya Jodra Sanchez, Jacinto Ramos Gonzalez, Maria Teresa Santos Jimenez, Rosa Cordovilla Perez, Jose Maria Gonzalez Ruiz, Ana Maria Sanchez Hernandez, Sergio Cadenas Menendez and Miguel Barrueco Ferrero

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: February 27, 2016

Since the microorganism Legionella pneumophila (Lp) was identified during an American Legion Convention in Philadelphia in 1976, it has been recognised as a common cause of both extra- and intra-hospital pneumonia [1]. The incidence of community-associated pneumonia (CAP) due to Lp varies widely from one area to another, hovering around 1% in subjects treated on an outpatient basis and 15-28% in hospitalised patients. Of these, approximately a quarter require admission to an intensive care unit ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510006

The Role of Procalcitonin as a Biomarker in Sepsis

Bethel Shiferaw, Ebisa Bekele, Krishan Kumar, Anthony Boutin and Marianne Frieri

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 11, 2016

Sepsis and its complications are one of the leading causes of mortality. Timely diagnosis and treatment is highly important in reducing the morbidity and mortality. Serum biomarkers may aid in the early diagnosis of sepsis and therapeutic intervention. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a peptide precursor of the hormone calcitonin and its primary trigger is infection. PCT is identified as part of the complex pro-inflammatory response of the innate immune system....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510005

Risk Factors Sexual Behaviour and C. trachomatis Infection among Health Sciences University Students in Lisbon

Zuzeca Magalhaes, Rita Castro and Filomena Martins Pereira

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: January 09, 2016

Individuals between 15 and 24 years of age are at higher risk of acquiring Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The objectives of this study were to describe risk taking sexual behaviour and the presence of C. trachomatis in health sciences university students in Lisbon....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510004

Incidence of Hospital Acquired Multidrug Resistant Organisms in a Tertiary Care Facility

Kamran Baig, Shaikh Muhammad Saif Din, Noura A Elkhizzi and Daifallah J Al Nakhli

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: November 18, 2015

Background: Irrational use of antimicrobials and gaps in infection control practices have resulted in alarmingly high prevalence of multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO) globally. The objective of our study was to highlight the incidence of hospital acquired MDROs in our facility. Method: A retrospective analysis of surveillance data collected from January - December 2013 in a tertiary care hospital of Saudi Arabia. The Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC) surveillance definitions were...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510003

HIV-1 Prevention and Cure: Where Do We Stand?

Marc P Girard

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: September 28, 2015

As of 2014, UNAIDS estimated that some 35 million people were living with HIV-1 worldwide, of whom more than 25 million were in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is no doubt that the use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in a preventative manner has allowed to at least partially limit the extension of the disease. The best example is the major success that was achieved with the implementation of ART in HIV-1-infected pregnant mothers to prevent the infection of their baby....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510002

Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Isolates Features from Natural Foci of Pribaikalie (Eastern Siberia, Russia)

Adelshin RV, Melnikova OV, Trushina Yu N and Andaev EI

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: August 28, 2015

Pribaikalie is a mountainous area in the South of Eastern Siberia that borders Lake Baikal between the Irkutsk Region and the Republic of Buryatia. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic to the area. Human cases occur usually within regional centers (Irkutsk and Ulan-Ude) and large industrial centers (Bratsk, Angarsk, Cheremkhovo), where the majority of the population is concentrated....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510001

Factors Associated with Changes in HIV-Testing Uptake among Young Women (15-24 Years) in Tanzania: Analysis of 2003-04, 2007-08 and 2011-12 Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey

Michael J. Mahande, Habib O. Ramadhani and Rune N. Phimemon

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 16, 2015

HIV counselling and testing (HTC) is an integral component of HIV preventive strategies. Despite an increase in the number of HTC sites, HIV testing uptake among young women in Tanzania is relatively low compared to other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to explore the factors associated with changes in HIV testing uptake using Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Surveys of 2003-04, 2007-08 and 2011-12....

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