Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology is an open access, peer reviewed journal that publishes information on clinical, preventative, curative and social aspects of Transmittable diseases. The main objective of the journal is to set a forum for publication, education, and exchange of opinions, and to promote research and publications globally. The Journal provides a platform for all clinicians, surgeons and health professionals to contribute their findings and help raise awareness among community in various infectious diseases and its epidemiology. We aim to provide free, immediate and unlimited access to highest quality clinical content via open access platform.

Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology focus on discovery and innovation in various aspects of Airborne Disease, Biological Contamination, Blood-borne Disease, Clinical Bacteriology, Clinical Mycology, Clinical Virology, Coinfection, Copenhagen Consensus, Disease Diffusion Mapping, Emerging Diseases, Epidemics, Foodborne Illness, Globalization and Disease, Human Microbiome Project, Infection Control, Infectious Disease Dynamics, Infectious Disease Eradication, Medical Bioinformatics for Infectious Diseases, Neglected Diseases, Nosocomial Infection, Pandemics, Pathology, Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeler, Threshold Host Density, Tropical Disease, Waterborne Diseases, Zoonotic Infections, etc. Original Article, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Short Communications, Case Reports, Perspectives/Opinions, Letters, Short Note and Commentaries are accepted for publication. All articles published in the journal are subject to a rigorous peer review process. It encourages authors to publish their experimental and theoretical results in detail to disseminate the updated research findings.

 
Journal Information

Title: Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology

ISSN: 2474-3658

NLM title abbreviation: J Infect Dis Epidemiol

ISO abbreviation: J Infect Dis Epidemiol

Other titles: JIDE

Category: Infectious

Country of publication: USA

Language: English

DOI: 10.23937/2474-3658

Publication format (s): Electronic and print

Publication policy: Open Access; COPE guide

Peer review: Double blind

Review speed: 3 weeks

Fast-track review: 10 days

Publication type(s): Periodicals

Publisher: ClinMed International Library

Contact email: contact@clinmedjournals.org

 
Articles Search by   Keyword   |   Journal title   |   Author name   |   DOI

 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510057

A Review on Sheeppox and Goatpox: Insight of Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment and Control Measures in Ethiopia

Takele Tesgera Hurisa, Zhizhong Jing, Huaijie Jia, Guohua Chen and Xiao-Bing He

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 29, 2018

Sheeppox and goatpox are caused by a genus of Capripox virus causing a severe problem and great economic loss in Ethiopia and also in sheep and goat rearing countries in many parts of the world. The objective of this review is to give insight on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and control measures of sheeppox and goatpox disease. Generally, the disease is less commonly seen in indigenous breeds in area where it is endemic as compared to exotic...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510056

Digital Surveillance and Communication Strategies to Infectious Diseases of Poverty Control and Elimination in Africa

Ernest Tambo, Shang Xia, Xin-Yu Feng and Zhou Xiao-Nong

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: August 23, 2018

Investing in digital technologies to support health-based research, modelling and planning, preparedness and timely effective response, and long-term management benefits has been recognized in improving epidemiological analysis, disease prevention, control to elimination, health education and promotion. This paper provides valuable insights and approaches for public health in collection, analysis, interpretation, use and dissemination of health surveillance data, resource allocation, for guiding...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510055

Cerebro-Meningeal Tuberculosis in HIV-Negative Adults

Guenifi Wahiba, Gasmi Abdelkader, Boukhrissa Houda, Rais Mounira, Hachani Abderahmen, Ouyahia Amel, Mechakra Saleh and Lacheheb Abdelmadjid

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 26, 2018

Tuberculosis remains a public health problem worldwide. Neurological localization is the most severe manifestation of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis characterized by a high mortality rate and a high rate of sequelae among survivors; its diagnosis is hampered by the absence of rapid and accurate tools, therefore it is often evoked and treated on presumption arguments. The aim of this study is to assess the epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, treatment, and outcome features in patients with cereb...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510054

New Perspectives of HCV Infection: Focus on New Treatment Agents and Comorbidity Status, a Short Review

Huang Yu-Fen and Su Hui-Chen

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: July 23, 2018

Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is one of the main leading causes of mortality associated with liver disease worldwide. Different predominant modes of transmission in the local area play an important role for the disease burden. Several cofactors are identified to accelerate the disease progression. Besides, several comorbidities are common in patients with CHC and also have poor response to the traditional combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) treatment....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510053

Common Pathophysiological Pathways for Apical and Upper Lobe Lung Disease

Aaron R Casha, Alexander Manche, Marilyn Gauci, Andre Navarro and Emanuel Farrugia

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 20, 2018

The pathophysiological factors that make the upper lobe "vulnerable" to various different pathologies are additive, and not mutually exclusive. They include a tall, thin body habitus with an antero-posteriorly flattened chest as associated with a low BMI, compounded by the poor apical blood supply and concomitant limited lymphatic drainage, possibly accentuated by a physically tall lung and a deep first rib furrow that makes the apex appear promi...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510052

Impact of the Biomechanical 'Pleural Stress' Pressure Vessel Hypothesis on the Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis: Predictors of TB Reactivation and its Application to TB Screening

Aaron R Casha, Roberto Caruana-Gauci, Alexander Manche, Marilyn Gauci, Ruben Gatt, Hannah-Marie Casha-Gauci and Joseph N Grima

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: June 15, 2018

A hypothesis for the pathogenesis of pulmonary TB is presented based on the biomechanics of pleural stress in the context of the lung as a pressure vessel. This hypothesis modelled pleural stress as a marker of pleural tissue destruction and subsequent repair. It identified five predictors of TB reactivation, namely adolescent and young adult age, male gender, apical location, low antero-posterior chest diameter or low thoracic-index rib-cage sha...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510051

Assessment of Systemic Fungal Infections among Diabetic Patients in Enugu, Nigeria

Theophilus Kachi Udeani, Victoria Nneka Asogwa and Uche Ezenwaka

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: June 15, 2018

Opportunistic invasive fungal infections are emerging health challenges worldwide, especially among immunocompromised hosts. This study investigated systemic fungal infections in diabetic patients. The diabetic patients were recruited from the Diabetic Clinics; Enugu State University Teaching Hospital Parklane, Enugu. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on the demographic and risk factors from the subjects....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510050

Effect of Infection Prevention and Control Measures on the Length of Hospital Stay of Patients at Lebanese Hospitals

Ahmad Dimassi, Katia Iskandar, Roula Matta, Nathalie Lahoud, Pierre Abi Hanna, Mira Jbeily and Pascale Salameh

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: May 07, 2018

Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) measures are related to medical practices that prevent or minimize spreading of infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of IPC measures on the length of hospital stay (LOS) of patients in infectious diseases service at Lebanese hospitals....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510049

Epidemiological Markers for HIV Infection among First-Time Antenatal Attendees in Sierra Leone: 2012-2015 Longitudinal Study

Jia Bainga Kangbai, Isata Victoria Mandoh, Matilda King, Josephine Alpha Rogers and Sulaiman Lansanah Mandoh

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: March 31, 2018

Globally it is estimated that 10% of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected patients are coinfected with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) which is the leading cause of chronic liver diseases including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In countries with high HBV endemicity the seroprevalence rate can be as high as 25% with approximately 10% of the HIV infected population coinfected with HBV....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510048

Tinea Capitis: Unusual Chronic Presentation in an Elderly Woman

Elizabeth Salazar, Daniel Asz-Sigall, Diana Vega and Roberto Arenas

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: March 31, 2018

Tinea capitis is a superficial fungal infection of the scalp and hair caused by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton and Microsporum. Tinea capitis is very rare in adults, and may affect those with immunosuppressive diseases or menopausal elderly women. Clinical manifestations along with trichoscopy and Wood’s light, can help the clinician to determine the correct diagnosis, in order to reduce irreversible sequelae and decrease multiple contagion...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510047

A Survey of Antimicrobial Agents Usage in Poultry Farms and Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia Coli and Staphylococci Isolates from the Poultry in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Joshua Awogbemi, Moses Adeyeye and Ezekiel Olugbenga Akinkunmi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 24, 2018

Compared to other livestock, domestic fowls are much more commonly reared and consumed in Nigeria. The emergence of serious live-threatening infections from veterinary sources and treatment failures occurring with the available antibiotics warrants investigation into the use of antimicrobial agents in poultry farms and how they contribute to the menace of antibiotic resistance. The main aim of this study was to investigate the use of antimicrobia...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510046

Three Novel Acinetobacter baumannii Plasmid Replicase-Homology Groups Inferred from the Analysis of a Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strain Isolated in Argentina

María M Cameranesi, Adriana S Limansky, Jorgelina Moran-Barrio, Guillermo D Repizo and Alejandro M Viale

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: December 06, 2017

Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen responsible for a variety of nosocomial infections. Its success in the hospital environment obeys to multiple causes, among them, the ability to resist antimicrobial compounds. It can rapidly evolve Multidrug Resistance (MDR) when confronted with antibiotic therapy....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510045

Quality of Perioperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis in a Community Hospital in Western Qatar

H Guanche Garcell, Ariadna Villanueva Arias and RA Nonato Alfonso

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: November 25, 2017

Descriptive study was carried out in a 75-bed public hospital in Western Qatar. The study included the patients underwent selected procedures who required antibiotic prophylaxis from Jan-2013 to June 2016. Data was collected by the infection control practitioner....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510044

Risk of Severe Influenza Infection: Hypercytokinemia Gene Polymorphisms and Related Plasma Proteome in Canadian Young Adults

Sirbarinder Bryn Dhir, Ahmed El-Sohemy and Alaa Badawi

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 13, 2017

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes influencing hypercytokinemia have been implicated in the clinical manifestations of severe influenza infection. Genotype-phenotype studies in healthy subjects may help to identify biomarkers of early prediction for severe disease outcome....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510043

Applied Medical Mathematical Modelling Technique for Epidemiology Approach for New Emerging Infection

Viroj Wiwanitkit

Article Type: editorial | First Published: November 08, 2017

Infection is the common pathology in medicine. The new emerging infection is the present problem worldwide. Within the past few years, there are several new emerging infections. The diseases are usually problematic and need good management and control....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510042

Cerebral Aspergillosis in a Patient with p-ANCA Vasculitis: Serial Imaging Observation over 15 Months

Mei Chen Chen, Che Kim Tan and Wen Liang Yu

Article Type: letter to the editor | First Published: November 06, 2017

Aspergillosis is well known in a patient with perinuclear Antineutrophilic Cytoplasmic Antibody (p-ANCA)-associated vasculitis and pulmonary renal syndromes....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510041

Cytomegalovirus Pneumonia Rather Than Pneumocystis Pneumonia in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Contributor or Bystander?

Hsin-Ju Tang and Wen-Liang Yu

Article Type: Editor | First Published: October 26, 2017

This is a 45-year-old man, who has been working in China for several years and denied any systemic diseases before. He has suffered from the right axillary mass for 3 weeks, which was film and associated with mild tenderness. He was admitted to the Hematology department of the hospital on May 1, 2017. The Computed Tomography (CT) scan from neck to the chest showed a large enhancing mass over right axillary area, favoring lymphoma or metastatic ly...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510040

A Study on the Origin of Bovine Rotavirus Strains Detected from the Children of the Nasu District, Tochigi, Japan

Kei Numazaki and Maho Ichikawa

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 28, 2017

Serious gastrointestinal infection of Rotavirus (RV) is usually prevalent during winter months and often seen in infants and young children. Studies on genotypes of prevalent rotavirus strains are quite important for preventing infection, developing vaccines, and its evaluation....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510039

Serotyping Toxoplasma Gondii: A Cross-Sectional Study in Uruguay

Susana Sousa, Andres Puime, Jose Manuel Correia da Costa and Marie-Laure Darde

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: September 23, 2017

Toxoplasma gondii genotypes display high genetic diversity in South America with levels of diversity not yet seen in Europe. Indeed, highly virulent strains even for immunocompetent humans have been described. However, limited or no information appears to be available dealing with strains of T. gondii circulating in Uruguay....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510038

Cytomegalovirus Infection of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Soweto, South Africa: A Look Back at the Clinical and Histological Features over 8 Years

Reena Dhansukh Mohanlal and Alan Karstaedt

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: August 26, 2017

Despite the widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. CMV gastrointestinal tract infection is poorly described. This retrospective study was undertaken to describe the clinical and histological features of biopsy confirmed CMV infection of the gastrointestinal tract in a large teaching hospital with a high prevalence of Human Immu...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510037

An Outcome Evaluation of a Standardized Computerized Prescriber Protocol for the Management of Clostridium Difficile Colitis in a Teaching Tertiary Care Facility

Linda Nwachukwu, Courtney Armstrong, Zachary Mulkey, Kristen Fuhrmann and Charles F Seifert

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 20, 2017

Clostridium Difficile Infection (CDI) continues to be the leading cause of healthcare-associated infectious colitis in the United States, replacing oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common cause of healthcare-associated infection....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510036

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Hepatitis B: A Survey among the Internet Users in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Abubaker Ibrahim Elbur, Nawaf Almalki, Abdualziz Alghamdi and Housain A Alqarni Alqarni

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 01, 2017

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is an important and serious global health problem. Despite the fact that there is a decrease in the prevalence rate of HBV infection in Saudi Arabia, but still it causes significant morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to measure the level of knowledge and to identify attitude and practice on HBV....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510035

Maternal and Fetal Death after Dengue Infection: Insights on Dengue Diagnosis

Christiane Fernandes Ribeiro, Ana Carla Gomes Soares, Vania Gloria Silami Lopes, Patricia Brasil, Ana Maria Bispo De Filippis, Priscila Conrado Guerra Nunes and Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 17, 2017

Dengue Virus (DENV) is an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus and has four antigenically distinct serotypes (DENV 1-4). Brazil is considered hyperendemic for dengue, and all serotypes have been identified....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510034

Needlestick Injury among Medical Students in an Australian University

Brahmaputra Marjadi, John Doan Nguyen, Peter Hoppett and Mary-Louise McLaws

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: June 16, 2017

Needlestick Injuries (NSI) commonly occurs in the hospital setting. Medical students are at risk of NSI due to lack of clinical experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and knowledge, attitudes, awareness and practices of NSI among medical students at an Australian university....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510033

Nocardia Mastoiditis in an Immunocompromised Patient

Sydney Marsh, Felicia Ratnaraj, Roy Norris, Jason Gass and Renuga Vivekanandan

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: June 08, 2017

Nocardia, a gram positive bacteria, is found primarily in the immunocompromised population. We present a case of nocardia causing mastoiditis in a patient with a history of recurrent otitis media, with a focus on appropriate treatment selection. ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510032

Detection of Human Papillomavirus among Patients with Clinically Diagnosed Cutaneous Warts by PCR Method

Yang Yang, Hexiao Wang, Xinrui Zhang, Wei Huo, Ruiqun Qi, Xiaodong Li and Xing-Hua Gao

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: May 20, 2017

Human cutaneous warts are prevalent worldwide and are caused by Human Papillomavirus. Most cutaneous warts can be clinically diagnosed without any auxiliary examination, but additional tests are required to confirm the infection of Human Papillomavirus in some atypical cases. The aim of this study was to measure the applicability of HPV DNA detection in cutaneous warts in a clinical setting....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510031

Prevalence, Predictors and Treatment Outcome of Type 2 Diabetes among Newly Diagnosed Sputum Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Western Cameroon

Leonard Sama Fonkeng, Innocent Mbulli Ali, Michel Noubom, Roland Bamou, Assoua HSR Sterve, Ayuk Leo, JR Kuiate and Christopher B Tume

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 21, 2017

There is a growing awareness on a global scale on the possible relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM). We conducted a prospective study in sputum positive pulmonary TB patients in two TB management clinics in Bamenda and Bafoussam in the North West and West regions of Cameroon respectively to determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, associated risk factors and the impact of diabetes in the treatment outcome....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510030

Inverse Correlation between 25-OH Vitamin D Levels and Severity of Viral Respiratory Illness in Infants

Mary Fairchok, Christina Schofield, Wei-Ju Chen, Mary Pugh, Hugh Bigg, John C Arnold and Eugene V Millar

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 17, 2017

25-OH vitamin D levels above 30 ng/mL activate HCAP-18, which impacts the immune response to respiratory viruses. While emerging data suggests a link between low levels of 25-OH vitamin D and an increased incidence of respiratory infections, the relationship between these levels and severity of infection is unknown. We hypothesized that infants with insufficient 25-OH vitamin D levels would have more severe viral respiratory infections....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510029

Molecular Identification of Trypanosome Species in Cattle of the Mikumi Human/Livestock/Wildlife Interface Areas, Tanzania

Narcisa L Nhamitambo, Sharadhuli I Kimera and Paul S Gwakisa

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: April 07, 2017

Trypanosomosis is a major neglected disease of animals and man that causes great negative socio-economic impact in many African countries. It is caused by protozoan parasites of the blood from the genus Trypanosoma. Previous studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of trypanosomosis in Tanzania, but none has been done in the human/livestock/wildlife interface areas of Mikumi National Park....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510028

Features and Prognostic Factors of Tuberculous Meningitis in a Tertiary Hospital in Malaysia

Chia Peck Kee, Petrick Periyasamy, Zhe Kang Law, Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim, Wan Nur Nafisah WanYahya, Hazlina Mahadzir, Shahrul Azmin Md Rani, Ramesh Sahathevan, Rabani Remli, Raymond Azman Ali, Hui Jan Tan, Syazarina Sharis Osman, Shahizon Azura Mohamed Mukari and Shamsul Azhar Shah

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 17, 2017

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) has been one of the major extrapulmonary manifestation with high morbidity and mortality. This paper aims to study the clinical features, prognostic factors and clinical outcome of TBM in a local tertiary hospital. This was an observational study on TBM in patients who were diagnosed in a local tertiary hospital....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510027

A Meta-Analysis of Directly Observed Treatment vs. Self- Administered Therapy Outcomes in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

Ardigleusa Alves Coêlho, Ricardo Ney Oliveira Cobucci, Emannuela Maria Nunes Freitas, Paulo Henrique Lima, Ewerton Willian Gomes Brito, Tânia Maria Ribeiro Monteiro de Figueiredo, Ana Katherine da Silveira Gonçalves and Severina Alice da Costa Uchoa

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 10, 2017

A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted in order to compare the effectiveness of directly observed therapy, short-course (DOTS) with self-administered treatment (SAT) in people with pulmonary tuberculosis. PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and the Scielo/Lilacs were searched for studies published between 1 January 1965 and 31 December 2013....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510026

Building Surveillance Capacity: Lessons Learned from a Ten Year Experience

Pamela J Kennedy, Sajata Outin, Tomas R Rodriguez, Lauren Polansky, Margaret McCarron and Karen R Siener, Ann C Moen

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 08, 2017

As Global Health Security partners endeavor to support capacity building globally, it is important to examine prior efforts for building surveillance and laboratory systems for emerging infectious diseases. CDC provides financial support and technical assistance to foreign governments for the development or improvement of influenza surveillance networks in over fifty countries through cooperative agreements....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510025

The Intestinal Microbial Community and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Hubert E Blum

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: March 06, 2017

Based on molecular, genetic, epigenetic, biochemical and microbiological analyses it is increasingly possible to identify individual disease-related characteristics that define disease pathogenesis, disease disposition or prognosis as well as the efficacy of therapeutic strategies (personalized medicine/precision medicine')....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510024

Preliminary Studies of Edible Bird Nest (EBN) Extract Reduced H1N1 Virus Induced Apoptosis on Cultured Cells-In Vitro

Nur Ain A, Abdul Rahman O and Aini I

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: February 28, 2017

The virus infection result in apoptosis of cells included mechanisms to inhibit apoptosis. It seems that both cellular and viral factors are involved depending on types of cells. Edible bird nest (EBN) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that contained various bioactive compounds with health benefits in human. ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510023

Bluetongue in Morocco 2004 to 2015: An Overview

Lhor Youssef, Kyriaki Nomikou, Khayli Mounir, Bouslikhane Mohammed, Fassi Fihri Ouafaa and El Harrak Mehdi

Article Type: Overview | First Published: February 18, 2017

Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious, arthropod borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. BT is a notifiable disease of huge socio-economic concern and of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products. Due to the segmented nature of genome, there is existence of high diversity in BT virus serotypes too as a consequence of genetic reassortments....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510022

Alternative Methods for Treating MRSA-Colonized and Infected Patients: Bacteriophages, Inhibitors of Wall Teichoic Acid Biosynthesis and Cultures of Not Drug-Resistant Staphylococcus Epidermidis

Felix-Martin Werner and Rafael Covenas

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 16, 2016

The colonization and infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a health problem of major importance in hospitals and long-term care facilities. Active decolonization measures are performed in MRSA-colonized patients; infections caused by MRSA are treated with vancomycin and other reserve antibiotics. The administration of bacteriophages could prevent the formation of MRSA biofilms....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510021

Epidemiology of Zoonotic Diseases in the United States: A Comprehensive Review

Adekunle Sanyaolu, Chuku Okorie, Nasima Mehraban, Oladapo Ayodele, Sarah K Tshitenge, Rochelle Knox, Elda Mullaj, Aaron Nandzo, Ayman El-Samman, Steven Neshewat and Sinthy Vivek

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 15, 2016

Zoonotic diseases or infections (Zoonoses) are ailments that are naturally transmitted from animals to humans (or vice versa). These diseases are transmitted either by the consumption of contaminated food and water, exposure to the pathogen during preparation, processing or by direct contact with infected animals or humans. Zoonotic diseases have a significant effect on public health worldwide, showing a higher incidence rate in developing countr...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510020

Prevalence and Characteristics of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Adult Sickle Cell Disease Patients Living in France

Jean-Benoit Arlet, Cloe Comarmond, Anoosha Habibi, Katia Stankovic, Jean-Antoine Ribeil, Marilucy Lopez Sublet, Louis Affo, Christelle Chantalat Auger, Marie-Anne Bouldouyre, Justine Gellen-Dautremer, Sylvain Le Jeune, Elena Fois, Latifatou Boukari, Veronique Perronne, Denis Vincent, Jacques Pouchot, Djamal Khimoud, Francois Lionnet and Patrice Cacoub

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: November 14, 2016

The relationship between HCV infection and complications of sickle cell disease SCD has not been reported. To determine prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in adult patients with SCD, and to analyze the relationship between HCV infection and SCD complications. A total of 267 SCD patients were included. A standardized questionnaire was filled out, including history and complications of SCD, and the status and main c...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510019

Antiretroviral Therapy Utilization in the Intensive Care Unit

Mia N Barnes, Monika N Daftary, Mary K Maneno and Faria F Farhat

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: November 14, 2016

Although clinical advances have been demonstrated through the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the management of an HIV infected patient within the intensive care unit (ICU) has been a topic of controversy due to the lack of evidence-based clinical guidelines to assist in the management of HIV patients admitted to the intensive care unit. The objective of this study was to examine ART utilization in the medical ICU and to assess relationships...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510018

Effectiveness of SP-IPTp for Malaria and Evidence for the Need of T. Gondii Infection Preventive Policy during Pregnancy in Ghana

Reginald Arthur-Mensah Jnr, Emmanuel Awusah Blay, Irene Ayi, John Larbi, Takashi Suzuki and Nobuo Ohta

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: September 13, 2016

Malaria and toxoplasmosis during pregnancy are each reported to cause severe negative consequences in both mother and child. In Ghana, efforts are ongoing to control malaria from all facets but there is no such effort yet for control of toxoplasmosis. In this study, we sought to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium spp and T. gondii infections in mothers at delivery and their neonates in a malaria holo-endemic area where Sulphadoxine-pyrimethami...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510017

Lemierre's Syndrome without Internal Jugular Vein Thrombophlebitis: A Diagnostic Conundrum

Gbolahan O Ogunbayo, Josephine Adunse, Odunayo Olorunfemi and Nashwa Abdulsalam

Article Type: Case Report | First Published: August 16, 2016

A previously healthy 23-year-old male presented with fever and shortness of breath. His illness initially started six days before presentation with a sore throat. Two days later he developed fevers with associated chills, rigors, and night sweats. He also complained of myalgias, non-productive cough, a right-sided chest pain, and shortness of breath on exertion, as well as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. His symptoms continued to ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510016

A Systematic Review of Efficacy Outcomes Reported from Clinical Trials Evaluating Vaccine Candidates Targeting Plasmodium Falciparum

James D MacKinnon

Article Type: Systematic Review | First Published: August 15, 2016

Malaria remains one of the most destructive communicable diseases worldwide. In the campaign towards global malaria eradication, the development of effective vaccinees has become paramount with the emergence of anti-malarial drug resistance to primary treatment and prophylactic regimens. Of particular focus are vaccinees specific to Plasmodium falciparum....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510015

Dengue Fever: Historical Perspective and the Global Response

Tyler Warkentien and Rebecca Pavlicek

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: July 02, 2016

Dengue fever remains an important mosquito-borne viral illness resulting in substantial human and economic costs. Despite rising incidence rates in recent decades, there is cause for hope, particularly in light of recent advancements in dengue vaccine and vector control research. This article reviews past dengue control efforts and discusses current and future strategies for dengue control....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510014

Essential Transition Metal Ion Complexation as a Strategy to Improve the Antimicrobial Activity of Organic Drugs

Graciela Borthagaray, Melina Mondelli and Maria H Torre

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 02, 2016

In order to maintain the capacity to treat infections it is necessary to adopt strategies for the development of new drugs. The use of metal ions in medicine for their antimicrobial effects was prevalent for many years before the advent of antibiotics. During the second half of the twentieth century, active metal complexes with different chemical, physicochemical and biochemical properties than the constituents reborn by the threat posed by micro...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510013

Tuberculosis Control in Jiangsu Province, China

Li Yan, Zhu Limei, Cheng Chen, Lu Wei, Booker G.W, Yu Hao and Polyak S.W

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: May 02, 2016

Tuberculosis (TB) has been a major health problem for thousands of years. It took almost 200 years after the discovery of the disease in early 1689 to identify the causative pathogen, namely Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Robert Koch who was awarded a Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1905 for his work in this area. Currently, TB is a global pandemic that outranks HIV-AIDS and malaria as the leading cause of death by infectious disease. In ...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510012

Resistance Profile of Mycobacteria Isolated from Patients Undergoing Retreatment in Senegal

Mouhamadou Lamine Dia, Sow AI, Cisse MF, Gueye Pal, Ba F, Cisse NN, Balde O, Diouf B and Sarr M

Article Type: Short Note | First Published: April 01, 2016

Resistance to anti-tuberculosis medication is a major public health problem worldwide and Senegal is not spared. Indeed, the WHO reported 13,186 cases of tuberculosis in Senegal (including new cases and relapses) for 2013, 2.1% of which were multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among new cases and 17% in retreatment patients. Elsewhere in the world, the WHO estimates the number of people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculo...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510011

Fluorescent DNA Aptamer-Magnetic Bead Sandwich Assays and Portable Fluorometer for Sensitive and Rapid Foodborne Pathogen Detection and Epidemiology

John G. Bruno, Taylor Phillips, Alicia M. Richarte, Tiffany Montez, Adrian Garcia and Jeffrey C. Sivils

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: March 28. 2016

This report extends fluorescent DNA aptamer-magnetic bead-based sandwich assays developed and published for ultrasensitive detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Listeria monocytogenes by adding prototype assays for pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shiga-like toxin-1 and Salmonella enterica. These tests are assessed by a highly portable fluorometer, thus enabling on-site detection and tracking or epidemiology of major foodborne pathogen outbreaks pote...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510010

Prevalence of β-Lactamase Positive Ampicillin Resistant H. Influenzae from Children of Bangladesh

Harunur Rashid, Shereen Shoma and Mahbubur Rahman

Article Type: Original Article | First Published: March 26, 2016

A total of 255 NPS specimens were collected from every seventh of 1786 children with meningitis (n = 293) and pneumonia (n = 1493). One hundred and twenty one (47.5%) H. influenzae were isolated from 255 NPS specimens. Among 121 isolates, 15 (38%) were recovered from meningitis compared to 106 (49%) from pneumonia cases (P < 0.3). Fifteen percent of isolates (18/121) were serotype b (Hib) and the rest were non-Hib....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510009

Development of Teicoplanin Tolerance by Staphylococcus epidermidis and Increased Susceptibility to Bacteriophage Type 92 by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Polymicrobial Biofilms

Jon M Riggs, Robert JC McLean, Rodney E Rohde and Gary M Aron

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 29, 2016

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a commensal commonly found in polymicrobial biofilms with Staphylococcus aureus. Given the increasing drug resistance in Staphylococci, we explored combination therapy with teicoplanin and bacteriophage type 92 (Siphoviridae) on the survival and antibiotic tolerance of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and S. epidermidis to teicoplanin and bacteriophage in 48-h pure and mixed culture biofilms....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510008

Assessment of Parent-Adolescent Communication on HIV/AIDS Prevention in Kemebata Temebaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Fiseha Lemango, Terefe Gone, Yohannes H/Michael and Shimeles Ololo

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: February 29, 2016

HIV/AIDS has significantly affected the well-being of adolescents and has posed serious concern for their parents. Parent-adolescent communication on HIV/AIDS is a key tool to prevent and control the disease among young people. However, information about parental involvement on adolescent HIV prevention activities is scarce in Ethiopia in general and in the study area in particular....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510007

Legionella's Pneumoniae: A New Outbreak in Spain and Urinary Antigen Test Review

Soraya Jodra Sanchez, Jacinto Ramos Gonzalez, Maria Teresa Santos Jimenez, Rosa Cordovilla Perez, Jose Maria Gonzalez Ruiz, Ana Maria Sanchez Hernandez, Sergio Cadenas Menendez and Miguel Barrueco Ferrero

Article Type: Short Review | First Published: February 27, 2016

Since the microorganism Legionella pneumophila (Lp) was identified during an American Legion Convention in Philadelphia in 1976, it has been recognised as a common cause of both extra- and intra-hospital pneumonia [1]. The incidence of community-associated pneumonia (CAP) due to Lp varies widely from one area to another, hovering around 1% in subjects treated on an outpatient basis and 15-28% in hospitalised patients. Of these, approximately a qu...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510006

The Role of Procalcitonin as a Biomarker in Sepsis

Bethel Shiferaw, Ebisa Bekele, Krishan Kumar, Anthony Boutin and Marianne Frieri

Article Type: Review Article | First Published: February 11, 2016

Sepsis and its complications are one of the leading causes of mortality. Timely diagnosis and treatment is highly important in reducing the morbidity and mortality. Serum biomarkers may aid in the early diagnosis of sepsis and therapeutic intervention. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a peptide precursor of the hormone calcitonin and its primary trigger is infection. PCT is identified as part of the complex pro-inflammatory response of the innate immune sy...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510005

Risk Factors Sexual Behaviour and C. trachomatis Infection among Health Sciences University Students in Lisbon

Zuzeca Magalhaes, Rita Castro and Filomena Martins Pereira

Article Type: Original Research | First Published: January 09, 2016

Individuals between 15 and 24 years of age are at higher risk of acquiring Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The objectives of this study were to describe risk taking sexual behaviour and the presence of C. trachomatis in health sciences university students in Lisbon....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510004

Incidence of Hospital Acquired Multidrug Resistant Organisms in a Tertiary Care Facility

Kamran Baig, Shaikh Muhammad Saif Din, Noura A Elkhizzi and Daifallah J Al Nakhli

Article Type: Original Research Article | First Published: November 18, 2015

Background: Irrational use of antimicrobials and gaps in infection control practices have resulted in alarmingly high prevalence of multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO) globally. The objective of our study was to highlight the incidence of hospital acquired MDROs in our facility. Method: A retrospective analysis of surveillance data collected from January - December 2013 in a tertiary care hospital of Saudi Arabia. The Centre for Disease Preventi...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510003

HIV-1 Prevention and Cure: Where Do We Stand?

Marc P Girard

Article Type: Editorial | First Published: September 28, 2015

As of 2014, UNAIDS estimated that some 35 million people were living with HIV-1 worldwide, of whom more than 25 million were in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is no doubt that the use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in a preventative manner has allowed to at least partially limit the extension of the disease. The best example is the major success that was achieved with the implementation of ART in HIV-1-infected pregnant mothers to prevent the infect...
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510002

Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Isolates Features from Natural Foci of Pribaikalie (Eastern Siberia, Russia)

Adelshin RV, Melnikova OV, Trushina Yu N and Andaev EI

Article Type: Short Communication | First Published: August 28, 2015

Pribaikalie is a mountainous area in the South of Eastern Siberia that borders Lake Baikal between the Irkutsk Region and the Republic of Buryatia. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic to the area. Human cases occur usually within regional centers (Irkutsk and Ulan-Ude) and large industrial centers (Bratsk, Angarsk, Cheremkhovo), where the majority of the population is concentrated....
 

 Open Access DOI:10.23937/2474-3658/1510001

Factors Associated with Changes in HIV-Testing Uptake among Young Women (15-24 Years) in Tanzania: Analysis of 2003-04, 2007-08 and 2011-12 Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey

Michael J. Mahande, Habib O. Ramadhani and Rune N. Phimemon

Article Type: Research Article | First Published: July 16, 2015

HIV counselling and testing (HTC) is an integral component of HIV preventive strategies. Despite an increase in the number of HTC sites, HIV testing uptake among young women in Tanzania is relatively low compared to other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to explore the factors associated with changes in HIV testing uptake using Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Surveys of 2003-04, 2007-08 and 2011-12....

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